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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-March  | Volume 19 | Issue 1  
    Online since November 23, 2015

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Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors amongst traders in an urban market in Lagos, Nigeria
TO Odugbemi, AT Onajole, AO Osibogun
January-March 2012, 19(1):1-6
Aims and Objectives: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors amongst traders in an urban market in Lagos State. Subjects and methods: Tejuosho market, one of the large popular markets was selected from a list of markets that met the inclusion criteria of being major markets dealing in general goods using a simple random sampling technique by balloting. Four hundred (400) traders were selected using a systematic random sampling. Each trader was interviewed with a well-structured questionnaire and had blood pressure and anthropometric measurements (height, weight and body mass index). Results: Female traders made up (74.3%) 297 of the total population. The mean age was 45.48+11.88 and 42.29+10.96 years for males and females respectively. Majority 239 (59.8%) fell within the age range of 35 - 55 years. The cardiovascular risk factors identified and their prevalence rates were hypertension (34.8%), physical inactivity (92%), previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus (0.8%), risky alcohol consumption (1%), cigarette smoking (0.3%) in females and (17.5%) in males, obesity (12.3%) and overweight (39.9%). Conclusion: The study recommended that any health promoting, preventive or intervention programme for this population would have to be worked into their market activities if it is to make an impact.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,660 172 -
Testicular schistosomiasis: A case report
TA Badmus, AO Takure, SA Osasan, AO Olajide, DO Sabageh
January-March 2012, 19(1):50-51
Aims and objectives: To report a case of testicular Schistosomiasis with a suspicion of testicular cancer. Patient and Methods: Hospital record of a 16 year old patient with histopathology confirmation of testicular Schistosomiasis was reviewed and summarised. The patient who had painless testicular nodules and ultrasound features of heterogenous echotexture and hypoechoic focus was diagnosed as testicular cancer and treated with radical orchidectomy. Histopathology confirmed testicular Schistosomiasis and the patient had additional praziquantel therapy. Results : Patient was followed up for over 26months post-operative. Conclusions: Testicular Schistosomiasis can mimick malignant testicular tumour. Hard nodular testicular mass in a patient with recent past history of schistosomiasis should arouse suspicion of testicular Schistosomiasis. Awareness and early presentation will prevent unwarranted orchidectomy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,560 133 -
Widespread endometriosis mimicking ovarian malignancy: A case report
RA Akinola, OI Akinola, A Alakija, KO Wright
January-March 2012, 19(1):46-49
A 26 year old Nigerian nulliparous woman who presented in the medical emergency unit of a teaching hospital was referred after two weeks of management to the gynecology casualty with a diagnosis of malignant left ovarian cyst, because of the ascites, massive haemorrhagic pleural effusion, a left ovarian mass and an elevated C-125 marker. However, exploratory laparotomy, cytologic and histological examination of the pleural fluid and biopsied specimens revealed endometriosis. We present a case of intra and extra-pelvic endometriosis which simulated a malignant ovarian lesion and was histologically confirmed by cytology of the haemorrhagic pleural effusion and biopsy of the ovarian mass and peritoneal deposits obtained at laparotomy. This is to draw the attention of clinicians to endometriosis as a cause of pleural effusion, ascites and groin swelling which can simulate ovarian cancer.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,526 113 -
An overview of biological basis of pathologic scarring
BO Mofikoya, WL Adeyemo, AO Ugburo
January-March 2012, 19(1):40-45
Summary Aims and objectives : To review the current mechanisms and biologic processes leading to the formation of pathologic scars. Materials and Methods: A computerised literature search was carried out using MEDLINE for all published articles on ''pathologic scarring''. The medical subject headings ''scarring'' were combined with ''mechanisms''. A review of selected relevant literature was then undertaken. Results: Scarless embryonal healing tends to be characterised by minimal inflammatory reaction mediated by reduced IL6,IL8 and hyaluronidase while there are elevated levels of hyaluronic acid MMP1to3, as well as IL10.The multifunctional cytokine TGF-B, its several isoforms as well as its postreceptor signalling mechanisms appears to play the key role in the scarring process . There is also evidence to show that PDGF, IGF and other cytokines regulate scarring . While conventional antiscarring agents target the fibroplasia phase, others such as tamoxifen ,calcium channel blockers, and imidazolaquinolines targets various phases of the scarring process . Conclusion: It appears that multiple mechanisms are involved in the phenotypical appearance of abnormal scarring. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms is pivotal to the development of better antiscarring therapies in the very near future .
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,504 131 -
Bacteriological agents of chronic discharging ears and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in Ido - Ekiti, Nigeria
TG Olajide, A Fadeyi, S Segun-Busari
January-March 2012, 19(1):30-35
Aims and Objectives: To identify bacterial agents of chronic discharging ear and determine their antibiotic sensitivities pattern in Ido - Ekiti, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Swab specimens of each chronically (>8 weeks) discharging ears of patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) presenting to the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Ido Ekiti were bacteriologically cultured aerobically and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the recovered organisms determined by the modified Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method over a three year period starting from January 2005. Results: Seventy eight patients with CSOM whose age ranged between 3 months and 85 years were seen during the study period with 73.1% of them having unilateral disease and majority were children <15 years (71.8%). Out of 99 ear swabs that were examined, 87.9% were culture positive with 90.8% yielding a single isolate. Coliforms (34.7%) were the most frequent isolated group of organisms. Other isolates included Staphylococcus aureus (26.3%), Proteus spp (24.2%), Pseudomonas spp (9.5%) and Klebsiella spp (5.3%). Sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed highest activity on all the isolates unlike cefuroxime and ceftiaxone to which all isolates were resistant. Conclusion: Chronic discharging ear is caused by bacteria agents most sensitive to quinolones but resistant to cefuroxime and ceftiaxone. Treatment of patients with CSOM in Ido-Ekiti with the quinolones is recommended except where contraindicated.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Fertility regulation among women of reproductive age in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria: Contraception, abortion or both
MA Okunlola, KM Owonikoko, AO Adeleke, AF Akinboade
January-March 2012, 19(1):25-29
Objectives: To assess the role of contraception and abortion in fertility regulation amongst Southwestern Nigerian women. Subjects and Methods : A survey was conducted through a self- administered questionnaire to women of reproductive age group attending gynecology clinic. Multinominal logistic regression was done to analyze the independent effects of social and demographic variables on the odds that women would adopt any fertility regulation methods instead of doing nothing. Results: Only 13% of surveyed women were using modern contraception. About 42.2% of women had had induced abortion, 15% of them neither use contraception nor abortion. Fifteen per cent of women surveyed used both contraception and abortion for fertility control. Muslims women had lower odds than Christians to use any of three fertility regulation methods instead of doing nothing. Unmarried and high levels of educational attainment were associated with significant odds of adopting each of three fertility regulation methods (Odd ratios; 1.38 - 35.5). Conclusions: There is a need for better fertility regulation. High dependency on abortion especially among the young, unmarried and high level educational status should be discouraged. Government and non-governmental agencies should assist in making modern contraceptives widely available with adequate rural coverage.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,461 141 -
Accuracy of intra-partum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric parameters
AR Eniowo, OM Loto, VO Oboro, PI Eniowo, AA Akintayo, OB Fasubaa, U Onwudiegwu
January-March 2012, 19(1):7-14
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at predicting foetal birth weight using various clinical methods and to determine which of the methods is the most accurate in this population. Subjects and methods: Parturients of all parities admitted into the labour ward of OAUTHC, Ile-Ife at term for delivery were recruited for this study. They had their symphysiofundal height, abdominal circumference at the umbilical level, height and weight measured. The body mass index was then calculated. The birth weight was calculated from these measurements using four clinical formulae. The weights of the babies were measured after delivery and compared with the individual estimated birth weights. Results: There were 400 women who met the inclusion criteria during the time of this study. Three of the methods [Johnson's Rule, Ojwang's Rule and 5% maternal weight] overestimated the birth weight while 10% BMI underestimated the birth weight significantly. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the birth weights predicted by the various clinical methods and the actual birth weight. The accuracy of the methods can be improved by using the derived modified formulae.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,476 116 -
Risk factors and seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody among blood donors in Lagos
TM Balogun, I Akinsete, MA Durosinmi
January-March 2012, 19(1):36-39
Aims and objectives: This study was undertaken (i) to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti -HCV) among blood donors (ii) to document the incidence of known risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors. Patients and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective study among apparently normal blood donors. Subjects were recruited from three different hospitals in Lagos metropolis. All recruited donors were evaluated for HCV infection- associated risk factors by questionnaire interviews. Sera samples from recruited donors were tested for anti-HCV using third generation Murex (Murex Biotech, South Africa) and fourth generation Dialab Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits (Dialab. Austria). Results: A total of three hundred and thirty four blood donors were screened, of which seven (2.1 %) were positive for anti-HCV. The blood donors comprised 15 (4.5 %) females and 319 (95.5 %) males. There was an association between anti-HCV positivity and history of multiple sex partners and previous sexually transmitted infections (X2-15.9; p<0.05) Majority of blood donors were family replacement 317 (94.9 %) with anti-HCV prevalence of 2.2 % (7/317) while 5.1 % (17/334) were voluntary non remunerated with anti-HCV prevalence of 0% (p>0.05) Conclusion: Prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors in Lagos (2.1%) is low as in most previous reports from Nigeria and some other parts of Africa
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,474 114 -
Frequency of distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors positivities in breast cancer cases in Benin-City, Nigeria
EE Ugiagbe, DE Obaseki, AO Oluwasola, AN Olu-Eddo, WO Akhiwu
January-March 2012, 19(1):19-24
Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors positivities among histologically diagnosed breast cancer cases at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Cases of breast carcinomas in the records of the Department of Histopathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, between 2003 and 2007 constitute the materials used for this study. Immunohistochemical staining was done using representative paraffin-embedded blocks (H&E slides assessment) and stained with oestrogen and progesterone antibodies manufactured by Dako Denmark (AS Denmark). Results: A total of 135 cases were studied. The female to male ratio was 44:1 with an overall mean age of 48.3΁13 years. Invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS (not otherwise specified) was the most common histological type (81.5%). Eighty per cent of cases were categorised as grades 2 and 3 tumours. The steroid hormone receptor positivity was 17%. Oestrogen and Progesterone receptor positivity were 14.1% and 9.6% respectively. There was a statistically significant association between hormone receptor status and the grade of tumour (χ2 = 6.37, df = 2, p = 0.04). Conclusion: This study shows a relatively low steroid hormone receptor positivity of breast cancer in Benin. This finding portends a poor prognostic effect and it is consequently recommended that steroid hormone receptor status be determined before hormonal treatment in these patients. There is the need to determine the immunohistochemical patterns of breast cancer in other centres that treat breast cancer patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,461 109 -
Benign prostate hyperplasia: average volume in southwestern Nigerians and correlation with anthropometrics
TA Badmus, CM Asaleye, SA Badmus, AO Takure, MH Ibrahim, OA Arowolo
January-March 2012, 19(1):15-18
Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalent age of symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), the average BPH volume, and the association between BPH volumes and the age, and anthropometrics. Patients, materials and methods: Selected patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH with tissue diagnosis, and adult men of similar age group with no irritative or obstructive LUTS were prospectively studied from July 2003 to June 2009. The age, height and weight were recorded; prostate volumes determined with ultrasound, body mass index (BMI) calculated, and correlations determined between the prostate volume, the age and anthropometrics. Results: One hundred and five patients aged 43-88years (mean=64.4, 8.88SD) managed for BPH were studied with 93 asymptomatic men aged 43-80years (mean=56.15, 9.89SD). The mean (SD) prostate volume, height, weight and BMI were 83.8(37.7) ml, 1.67(0.07) m, 63.6(9.32) kg and 22.8(3.03) kg/m2, and 24.5(9.2) ml, 1.69(0.06) m, 68.9(10.6) kg and 24.2(3.44) kg/m2 respectively for symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. In the symptomatic group, BPH volume showed significant positive correlation with the age (p=0.030), but no correlation with the weight (p=0.550), height (p=0.375) and BMI (p=0.840). In the asymptomatic group, prostate volume also showed significant positive correlation with the age (p=0.041), but no correlation with the weight (p=0.434), height (p= 0.394), and BMI (p=0.203). Conclusion: The prevalent age of symptomatic BPH in our community is 43-88years with 83.79(37.66) ml mean (SD) volume in symptomatic patients and 24.45(9.21) ml in asymptomatic men. BPH volume correlates with age but not with anthropometrics. Lack of correlation with BPH volume suggests that anthropometrics may not be risk factors for development of BPH.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,446 117 -