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   2011| October-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 25, 2015

 
 
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ARTICLES
The Pattern of Chest Radiographs findings in Metastatic Cancer Patients seen in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Nigeria
SA Adewuyi, R Arogundade, JB Igashi, ND Chom, AU Hamidu, OB Campbell
October-December 2011, 18(4):245-250
Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the pattern of chest radiographs findings in metastatic cancer patients at first presentation in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria with a view to contributing to existing literature and making recommendation for optimal patients care in Nigerian hospitals. Patients and Methods : From January 2002 to December 2007, 712 new patients were seen and 688 patients' chest radiographs excluding children (below 16 yr) were reviewed of which 118 were considered abnormal due to pathology arising from primary cancer. Those Chest radiographs showing pathology not related to cancer were excluded. Results were analysed using EPI-Info, version 3.4.1. 2007. Results : 118 (17%) patients' chest radiographs (CXR) were having evidence of metastases from primary cancer. The sex ratio is M: F = 1: 1.7 with a mean age of 48.1 years (Range 16 - 82 yrs). Breast cancer was the commonest cause of metastatic spread to the lungs seen in 44 (37.3%) patients followed by colorectal 10 (8.5%), soft tissue sarcoma 9 (7.6%), and bone sarcoma 8 (6.8%). Cervical cancer which was the commonest type of malignancies seen at presentation accounted only for 8 (6.7%) cases. Both lungs were involved in 62 (52.5%) patients, followed by right lung alone in 42 (35.6%) cases and left lung alone in 14 (11.9%) cases. The mid zone was the commonest site of lung metastases 102 (86.4%) followed by lower zone 42 (35.6%). Pleural effusion seen in 26 (22%) patients affected both lungs equally. Multiple lung metastases were the predominant pattern of metastases seen in 94 (80%) cases. Majority 82 (69.5%) of lungs metastases were of sizes less than 2cm. Conclusion: Multiple lung metastases were the commonest pattern of lung metastases. Both lungs and mid zone were mainly affected. Lung metastases were very common from breast, colorectal, bone sarcoma, prostate cancers but relatively rare from cervical, head and Neck cancers and lymphomas. Chest radiographs should be part of initial evaluation of all cancer patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,736 1,016 -
Fertility Regulation among Women of Reproductive Age in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria: Contraception, Abortion or Both
MA Okunlola, KM Owonikoko, AO Adeleke, AF Akinboade
October-December 2011, 18(4):251-256
Aims and Objectives : The objective of this study is to document the prevalence and clinicopathologic features/pattern of salivary gland tumours in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. Patients and Methods : Fifty eight (58) cases of salivary gland tumours histologically diagnosed between January 1989 and December 2007 were identified from the biopsy records of the Departments of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine and Oral/Maxillofacial Pathology of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The records of the patients were extracted and data on incidence, age, gender and site of the various tumours were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results : Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common salivary gland tumour reported accounting for twenty-five (43.1%), followed by Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (eight, 13.8%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma and myoepithelioma each accounted for six cases (10.3%). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the salivary gland occurred in two patients. Twenty-six (44.8%) cases occurred in males while thirty-two (55.2%) occurred in females giving a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.2. The parotid region was the most common site accounting for twenty-eight (49.1%) cases, followed by the submandibular region 16 (28.1%) and palate 10(17.5%). Conclusions: Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland tumour. Contrary to other African studies, our series reveals mucoepidermoid carcinoma as the commonest malignant salivary gland tumour.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,639 900 -
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Child Adoption among Infertile Female Patients in Sokoto North-West Nigeria
EI Nwobodo, YA Isah
October-December 2011, 18(4):272-275
Aims and objective : To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption among infertile female patients at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto. Patients and Methods : Semi structured interview questionnaire was administered to 250 consecutive infertile female patients (between January 2008 and November 2009) at UDUTH Sokoto who agreed to participate in the study after counseling. The data was analysed by simple percentages, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and regression equations at 95% confidence level. Results : Knowledge of child adoption was high (74.8%). However only 1.2% of the respondents had adopted a child while 27.2% were willing to adopt. Willingness for child adoption was significantly higher in patients whose duration of infertility was greater than 5 years (OR=6.0, P<0.001), those with secondary/tertiary education (OR=4.1, P<0.001) and in those with no living child (OR=24.9, P<0.001) compared to their reverse counterpart. Majority of the respondents (71.6%) were not willing to adopt a child and their main reason was that child adoption would not allow them fulfill their conception role as women. Conclusions : Knowledge of child adoption was high among the respondents but the willingness to adopt a child was low due to the fact that it would not allow them fulfill their conception role as women. There is need to educate and encourage our infertile patients to utilise this cheaper and available option of managing infertility.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,834 192 -
Histopathological study of salivary gland tumours in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
E Kehinde Adebiyi, Kizito C Ndukwe, Vincent I Ugboko, Ganiat O Omoniyi-Esan, Olagundoye O Oluwafemi
October-December 2011, 18(4):257-261
Aims and Objectives : The objective of this study is to document the prevalence and clinicopathologic features/pattern of salivary gland tumours in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. Patients and Methods : Fifty eight (58) cases of salivary gland tumours histologically diagnosed between January 1989 and December 2007 were identified from the biopsy records of the Departments of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine and Oral/Maxillofacial Pathology of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The records of the patients were extracted and data on incidence, age, gender and site of the various tumours were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results : Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common salivary gland tumour reported accounting for twenty-five (43.1%), followed by Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (eight, 13.8%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma and myoepithelioma each accounted for six cases (10.3%). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the salivary gland occurred in two patients. Twenty-six (44.8%) cases occurred in males while thirty-two (55.2%) occurred in females giving a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.2. The parotid region was the most common site accounting for twenty-eight (49.1%) cases, followed by the submandibular region 16 (28.1%) and palate 10(17.5%). Conclusions: Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland tumour. Contrary to other African studies, our series reveals mucoepidermoid carcinoma as the commonest malignant salivary gland tumour.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,789 144 -
Refractive errors in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria
Abdu Lawan, Okpo Eme
October-December 2011, 18(4):276-278
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to retrospectively determine the pattern of refractive errors seen in the eye clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano-Nigeria from January to December, 2008. Patients and Methods: The clinic refraction register was used to retrieve the case folders of all patients refracted during the review period. Information extracted includes patient's age, sex, and types of refractive error. All patients had basic eye examination (to rule out other causes of subnormal vision) including intra ocular pressure measurement and streak retinoscopy at two third meter working distance. The final subjective refraction correction given to the patients was used to categorise the type of refractive error. Results: Refractive errors was observed in 1584 patients and accounted for 26.9% of clinic attendance. There were more females than males (M: F=1.0: 1.2). The common types of refractive errors are presbyopia in 644 patients (40%), various types of astigmatism in 527 patients (33%), myopia in 216 patients (14%), hypermetropia in 171 patients (11%) and aphakia in 26 patients (2%). Conclusion: Refractive errors are common causes of presentation in the eye clinic. Identification and correction of refractive errors should be an integral part of eye care delivery.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,749 153 -
Comparison of the Knowledge and Perception of Physiotherapy by Medical Students of the Institutions with and without Physiotherapy Training Programme
OD Odebiyi, CB Aiyejusunle, EO Alonge, TA Olalekan
October-December 2011, 18(4):282-287
Aims and Objectives : To compare the knowledge and perception of physiotherapy by medical students of two institutions, one (i.e. University of Lagos -UL) with and the other (i.e. Lagos State University -LSU) without physiotherapy training programme. Subjects and Methods : A total of 193 undergraduate medical students (UL= 96, LSU = 97) participated in this survey by completing a 26-item closed-ended questionnaire with a response rate of 96%. The questionnaire included information on personal characteristics, general knowledge and perception of physiotherapy. Chi-square statistics, t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine significant differences between variables at 95% confident interval. Results: Respondents from UL (medical school with physiotherapy training facility) were significantly knowledgeable (p<0.05) and at all Levels of the clinical years (p<0.05) than those from LSU (medical school with no physiotherapy training facility). Also their perception of physiotherapy was significantly (p<0.05) better than those from LSU, particularly in the 600Level (i.e. final year). While there was no gender difference in knowledge, the males from UL had significantly better perception of Physiotherapy (p<0.05). Conclusion : Medical students from UL had better knowledge and perception of physiotherapy than those from LSU. The low level of knowledge and perception of medical students of LSU about physiotherapy may be due to the absence of physiotherapy training in LSU.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,702 155 -
Management and Health issues in Women with Epilepsy- A review
FK Salawu, JY Moruppa, A Danburam, AB Olokoba
October-December 2011, 18(4):288-294
Although epilepsy affects men and women equally, there are special implications for women, especially during their childbearing years, and particularly when pregnancy is contemplated. This review summarisesthe complexity and multifaceted nature of health issues affecting women with epilepsy (WWE) in general and epilepsy in women beyond childbearing age. The female sex hormones and their cyclic as well as age-related variations certainly influence seizure activity and epilepsy in women. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. There are special concerns for women of child bearing years with regard to contraception, pregnancy and teratogenicity that should be considered during counseling and selection of appropriate treatment.Although the majority of pregnant WWE experience normal pregnancies and deliveries, their children have a higher risk of birth defects. Individualised treatment coupling antiepileptic drug use (AED) and the specific phase of impact of the reproductive cycle must be considered in treatment selection. As the number of available treatment options for epilepsy increases, the optimal goal for the general practitioner is to work as a team with obstetricians and gynaecologists, and neurologists in an effort to ensure the best treatment of WWE.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,698 143 -
Postmortem findings of Victims of Sexual Assault: A Study of 15 Autopsies in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
D Seleye-Fubara, EN Etebu
October-December 2011, 18(4):262-265
Aims and Objectives: To study the frequency, status of the victims and assailants as well as the pattern of death in sexually assaulted females. Subjects and methods : A eight year (1st January 1995 to 31st December 2002) autopsy study of sexual assault in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Coroner's autopsies performed by the authors at different parts of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where the circumstances of death and autopsy finding fit into sexual assault and/or complications were studied after being served with the Coroner's inquest forms by the Police. Reports and death certificates were returned to the coroner through the police. Results: A total of 1,265 autopsies were performed by the authors during the period under review of which 15 cases were deaths from sexual assault constituting 1.2% of the total autopsies. The youngest was 7 years old while the oldest was 59 years old. The highest frequency of death n=4(26.7%) occurred in the age group 10-19 years. Unmarried females n=6(40.0%) were the most common victims. Militants n=7(46.7%) were the most common real/suspected assailants and Asphyxial death n=7(46.7%) was the most common pattern of death of which neck break was the foremost n=4(26.7%). Conclusion: Death from sexual assault on women is becoming a common event that is posing an undue social problem to the victims, relations and the government in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. There should be a government intervention to arrest and prosecute the perpetrators of this crime. This will discourage other assailants from committing the crime and thereby reducing the frequency of death.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,673 126 -
Tympanoplasty: Is exposure adequate for Otorhinolaryngology Residents in Nigeria?
P. R. O. C. Adobamen
October-December 2011, 18(4):279-281
Aims and Objectives: This study is aimed at identifying the extent of exposure of residents to tympanoplasty procedure during their training in Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) and proffer ways of improving such exposure. Patients and Methods: Questionnaire assessing the exposure to tympanoplasty procedures was administered to ORL residents who were randomly selected from six teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Results: Twenty five residents from six teaching hospitals answered the questionnaire. The residents had varied duration of training from 11 months to 6years. Forty eight per cent (12 out of 25) of the residents had exposure to tympanoplasty, while only twenty per cent (5) had assisted at tympanoplasty procedure, and none had ever performed the procedure. The causes of poor practical exposure to tympanoplasty were identified as absence of necessary equipment and lack of expertise in the training centres. Ninety-two (23) per cent rated the low exposure to tympanoplasty procedure as moderate to gross omission in the ORL fellowship training. Eighty seven per cent of the respondents advocated provision of equipment and posting to centres with facilities as a way of solving this problem. All the residents indicated willingness to train in tympanoplasty procedures in Nigeria or overseas. Conclusion: ORL residents are poorly exposed to tympanoplasty procedures in Nigeria. The need to train residents in this procedure in centres with facilities for better ORL services is hereby stressed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,645 136 -
Recognition of Mental Health Problems by Primary Care Physicians in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nigeria
UE Asibong, NE Udonwa, AN Gyuse, IB Okokon, T Aluka, EE Ekpe
October-December 2011, 18(4):266-271
Aims and Objectives: This study sought to determine the difference in detection of attendees with mental health problems visiting the General Out-patient clinic of a tertiary institution; the General Health Questionnaires (GHQ-12) were compared with those identified by the physicians. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and twenty two (322) subjects aged 18 years and above, attending the clinic for the first time, were recruited for the study by a systematic random sampling method. Using a cut off score of '3' on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), 'Cases' and 'Non-cases' generated were compared with those identified by the doctors. Identification rates for both groups were calculated and the coefficients determined using a two-by-two contingency table. Results: The GHQ-12 identified 46.6% 'cases' while the General Out-patient Clinic (GOPC) doctors identified 6.8% with a diagnostic sensitivity of 8% and a specificity of 94% Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of mental health problems in the GOPC of the hospital, the detection rate by the clinic doctors was low. There is a need for the use of an easy tool like the GHQ-12 for screening and identification of attendees with mental health problems especially in a busy clinic setting .
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,629 122 -