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   2005| April-June  | Volume 12 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 29, 2016

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An assessment of food hygiene among food handlers in a Nigerian university campus
OH Okojie, VA Wagbatsoma, AD Ighoroge
April-June 2005, 12(2):93-96
INTRODUCTION: Food handlers play a major role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of producing, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard for hygiene measures on their part may result in food contamination and its attendant consequences. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene by food handlers in a Nigerian University Campus. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on randomly selected food handlers operating on the campus. A total of 102 respondents were interviewed and inspected using a structural questionnaire administered by researchers. RESULTS: Ninety (88.2%) of the respondents were female, and there was a predominantly poor level knowledge of food hygiene. The practice of storing and reheating leftovers was low and agreed to by 15 (14.7%) of the respondents; there was a very low frequency of hand washing. Inspection of food handlers showed a low level of personal hygiene. Only 31 (30.4%) had had pre employment medical examination and only 49 (48%) had received any form of health education. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a poor knowledge and practice of food hygiene among food handlers providing food for undergraduates in a Nigerian University. It is recommended that a massive health education campaign directed at both the public and food handlers be embarked on, to enable people take necessary steps to prevent food borne diseases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Adult onset otitis media with effusion in Lagos
AO Somefun, SA Adefuye, MA Danfulani, S Afolabi, PA Okeowo
April-June 2005, 12(2):73-76
BACKGROUND/AIM: The documented reports on adult onset OME is scanty world wide, this study was prompted by the increasing trend of OME in our adult patients with the aim of determining the prevalence, predisposing factors and treatment outcome of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out over a two year period at the Otolaryngology Clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital Lagos Nigeria, on 195 patients referred to the clinic with provisional diagnosis of OME. The patients had clinical evaluation, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry while a few had fibre optic nasopharyngoscopy and biopsy done. RESULTS: A hospital based prevalence of 2.6% was recorded in the Otolaryngology clinic during the study period, with infective and allergic sinusitis as the major predisposing factors to OME in adult patients. Majority 58 (92.06%) patients were treated conservatively and recurrence was seen in 8 (12.7%) of the patients without any untoward effects. OME, though recognised as a childhood disease may be as prevalent in adult as in childhood but with less complication. CONCLUSION: OME as a single clinical feature or in association with allergy or sinusitis is most unlikely to habour NPC therefore nasopharyngoscopy and biopsy are likely to give a low yield of positive biopsy in isolated OME in adult and the cost implication of this must be borne in mind.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Changes in erythrocytes following supplementation with alpha-tocopherol in children suffering from sickle cell anaemia
SI Jaja, PE Aigbe, S Gbenebitse, EO Temiye
April-June 2005, 12(2):110-114
INTRODUCTION: Low plasma vitamin E level in children with sickle cell anaemia has been related to elevated level of irreversibly sickled cells which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of painful crisis. In adult patients supplementation with alpha-tocopherol has been shown to reduce irreversibly sickled cell count. In-addition, vitamin E supplementation increases resting forearm blood flow and reduces forearm vascular resistance in adult sickle cell anaemia sufferers. AIM: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol on arterial blood pressure, some haematological parameters and osmotic fragility in children suffering from sickle cell anaemia. METHODOLOGY: The effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg. per day for 6 weeks) on packed cell volume (PCV) haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), per cent foetal haemoglobin (% HbF), per cent irreversibly sickled cells (%ISC), erythrocyte osmotic fragility and blood pressure have been assessed in ten (10) children suffering from sickle cell anaemia. Their ages ranged from 4.0 to 10.0 years. RESULTS: Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol significantly increased packed cell volume (p<0.001), haemoglobin concentration (p<0.01) and per cent foetal haemoglobin (p<0.001), but significantly reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (p<0.01) and per cent irreversibly sickled cells (p<0.001). alpha-Tocopherol also increased the resistance of the cells to lysis. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol had little or no effect on arterial blood pressure. CONCLUSION: This study shows that short-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol may be beneficial to the paediatric sickle cell sufferer.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Radiological assessment of femoral neck-shaft and anteversion angles in adult Nigerian HIPS
PF Umebese, A Adeyekun, M Moin
April-June 2005, 12(2):106-109
A trigonometric calculation of projected femoral neck shaft or cetrum-collum-diaphysis angle (CCD angle) and anteversion angle (AT angle) were assessed in normal adult Nigerian hips using the standardised biplane radiography described by Mόller and Rippstein. A mean CCD angle and AT angle of 121 degrees+/-6 (SD) and 28 degrees+/-5 (SD) respectively were obtained in the 116 Nigerian adult hips assessed. The values obtained were inconsistent with quoted reference ranges of 130 degrees+/-7 and 10 degrees+/-7 respectively. There was however no significant difference between the female and male CCD and AT angles.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Aetiology of catheter-associated bacteriuria in Lagos University Teaching Hospital
UE Okafor, FT Ogunsola, OA Osinupebi
April-June 2005, 12(2):89-92
A prospective study to determine the causative agents of catheter-related bacteriuria was carried out on 99 patients with median age of 55 years, on admission in the Oncology, Paediatric Surgery and Obstetric and Gynaecology wards of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. There was significant bacteriuria in seventy-one (72%) of the 99 urine samples. All catheter urine samples were contaminated by day 5 Gram-negative bacilli were predominant (89.3%) of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.2%) was the most common, while Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes accounted for 15.5% each, closely followed by Proteus mirabilis (14.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.5%). The Gram positive isolates Enterococcus faecalis (8.3%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2.4%) made up only 10.7% of isolates. Most of the isolates from catheterised patients were resistant to the common antibiotics such as ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin and ceftriaxone with high susceptibility to ofloxacin and ceftazidime though the isolates of Enterococcus faecalis was also resistant to ofloxacin. However, isolates of S. saprophyticus were still susceptible to the penicillins and tetracycline.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Comparative study of the therapeutic effect of a systemic analgesic and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on post-IMF trismus and pain in Nigerian patients
OO Fagade, FO Oginni, TO Obilade
April-June 2005, 12(2):97-101
OBJECTIVES: To compare the therapeutic effect of paracetamol and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), on post-Intermaxillary Fixation (IMF) trismus, and pain in some Nigerian patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients treated for mandibular fractures with IMF were randomly selected into two groups of ten patients each. After the release of IMF, they were started on jaw exercises with the aid of wooden spatulae to overcome trismus due to muscle spasm. Patients in Group I underwent jaw exercises before and after TENS therapy which lasted for 30 minutes while those in Group II had jaw exercises before and 30 minutes after ingestion of 100 mg of paracetamol. Their inter-incisal distances were recorded pre and post intervention. RESULTS: Analysis of the data showed that for both therapeutic interventions, there was an appreciable gain in mouth-opening which was more prominent for patients with unusual difficulty in mouth-opening initially. However, a comparison between the mean improvements produced by TENS and analgesic revealed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Both the TENS therapy and paracetamol provided similarly appreciable differences in inter-incisal distances (mouth-opening) after their applications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Parental awareness of emergency management of avulsion of permanent teeth of children in Lagos, Nigeria
OO Sanu, IL Utomi
April-June 2005, 12(2):115-120
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Traumatic injuries in children and adolescents affecting both the primary and permanent dentitions and their supporting structures are a common problem seen in children. Avulsion of permanent teeth in children resulting from trauma is an emergency in children. The prognosis of avulsed teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment, which often relies on lay people such as the children's parents and their schoolteachers who are present at the site of the accident, prior to the initial professional dental contact. Knowledge of parents on the emergency management is thus surveyed. METHOD: A 13- stemmed questionnaire comprising questions on demographic data, attitude and knowledge was distributed to parents who have accompanied their children (patients) to the Orthodontic/Paedodontic Clinics of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) for treatment over a 12-week period from October- December 2002. RESULT: A total of ninety parents were studied. Over 90% of the parents felt they should seek professional help urgently following an avulsion injury, but their knowledge of transport medium for the tooth was poor. Only 1.1 per cent and 3.3 per cent knew that milk was the medium of choice for washing and transporting an avulsed tooth respectively. 91.1% of parents surveyed had never received advice on what to do in the event of an accident where a permanent tooth was avulsed. CONCLUSION: There is a need for educational campaigns aimed at parents to increase their knowledge of the emergency procedures required when the tooth is avulsed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Malignant melanoma: a review
MM Dauda, SM Shehu
April-June 2005, 12(2):125-130
The incidence of malignant melanoma the most malignant of all skin neoplasms, has doubled within the last 10 years. Exposure to high intensity sunlight, racial susceptibility, hormonal status, age, environmental factors as well as injury have all been shown to play a role individually or synergistically in the activation of the melanocytic oncogen. Controversies still exist in which factors actually determine prognosis, in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Management has remained even more controversial, with surgical excision, with or without lymphadenectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, laser therapy and more recently immunotherapy and intra-arterial neutron thermal capture therapy, having their proponents and opponents.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Point of care testing: a delight or a dilemma in the developing world?: an overview.
DS Mshelia, AA Buba
April-June 2005, 12(2):136-139
OBJECTIVES: This is to highlight the use of POCT especially by the untrained laboratorians, and its disadvantages and advantages. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The results of urinalysis carried out in Antenatal Clinic and Central Chemical Pathology laboratory for a two-year period were analysed to determine how the results were interpreted, whether there were further request(s) and how relevant they were. The results of 56 out of 303 oral glucose tolerance tests carried out because of positive glucose in urine (glycosuria) were reviewed. Similarly the results of 176 pregnant women who had proteinuria on urinalysis in Antenatal Clinic and 92 patients who had positive bilirubin-diglucuronide in their urine (bilirubinuria) were also reviewed. RESULTS: The result shows that only 18 out of the 56 patients who had OGTT based on positive glucose in their urine had glycosuria on fasting urine sample on the OGTT day. 4 of them had gestational diabetes mellitus, 2 were diabetic before conception 5 had impaired glucose tolerance, while 7 had renal glycosuria. Thirty-eight results were false positives with repeat urinalysis and OGTT. Also out of the 176 pregnant women who had proteinuria on urinalysis only 57(32.4%) were confirmed on repeat urinalysis and/or 24 hr urinary protein quantification, 51 became negative after successful treatment of their UTI, while 68(38.6%) were false positives. Similarly out of 92 patients who had bilirubinuria only 23 showed abnormalities suggestive of some degree of liver disease. CONCLUSION: Results obtained on POCT must be validated in the central laboratory.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Alcohol use and abuse among medical and surgical in-patients in a general hospital
GT Okulate, A Odunaike
April-June 2005, 12(2):77-80
OBJECTIVE: Non-recognition of alcohol problems in medical and surgical patients may have adverse consequences. This may be minimised by having a high index of suspicion and the use of screening instruments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Items from two alcohol abuse screening instruments (CAGE and Patient Health Questionnaire) were administered on medical and surgical in-patients in a general hospital during a one-year period, to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol use was 49.8% and for alcohol abuse 14.8%. Paternal alcohol use and cigarette smoking were found to be good indicators of alcohol abuse. CONCLUSION: Detailed inquiry about alcohol use, looking for indices of cigarette smoking and routine use of screening instruments should assist in discovering many patients with alcohol abuse who probably would have denied having the problem.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Occlusal features of sickle cell anaemia patients in Lagos, Nigeria
OO daCosta, MO Kehinde, MO Ibidapo
April-June 2005, 12(2):121-124
One hundred and four sickle cell anaemia patients aged 10-45 years and attending the out patients' clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital as part of a routine check-up were seen. They were in a steady state of health. By means of a structured questionnaire the Biodata of each consecutive eligible patient was obtained and physical examination was carried out. Oral examination was done with emphasis on occlusal variables including Angle's Classification of occlusion, overjet, overbite, tooth: bone ratio, lip competence and skeletal pattern. Results showed that the majority of the patients 92 (88.5%) seen presented with Angle's Class 1 malocclusion. Increased overjet was observed in 50 (48.2%) of the sample population while an overbite depth of 2 was most frequently seen in these patients. Spacing in the anterior segment of the upper and lower arches was a fairly common occurrence, occurring in 51 (49.0%) and 39 (30.8%) of the patients seen respectively. Normal dental base relationship (Skeletal 1) was observed in 72 (69.2%) while lip incompetence was seen in 41 (39.4%) of the patients examined. Occlusal anomalies vary from mild to severe and may be attributable to hyperplastic maxillary bone and the resultant skeletal discrepancy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Serum lipids in women on oral contraceptives in Zaria-Nigeria
IA Yahaya, OA Afonja
April-June 2005, 12(2):85-88
AIM: To compare the serum lipid levels of women on two different types of oral contraceptives, norethindrone 0.5 mg/ethinyl oestradiol 0.035 mg and norgesterol 0.5 mg/ethinyl oestradiol 0.03 mg. METHOD: Serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were estimated in two groups (A&B) of women. Group A were 35 women who had been on norethindrone 0.5 mg/ethinyl oestradiol 0.035 mg for over one year, while the group B were 35 women on norgesterol 0.5 mg/ethinyl oestradiol 0.03 mg for three months. Thirty five healthy, age- matched women not on oral contraceptive agent were used as controls. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were found in the group A women compared to the group B women. The mean HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher in the group B women in the 2nd and 3rd months of therapy than in the controls. The LDL-cholesterol levels were statistically similar in the two groups of contraceptive users and the controls. The results obtained were within the reference interval established in our laboratory. CONCLUSION: The oral contraceptive containing norgesterol 0.5 mg/ethinyl oestradiol 0.03 mg was found to be better as it increased the levels of HDL-cholesterol more than the other lipids. It is not known if this finding will persist on long-term use of the oral contraceptive.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour: a clinico-pathological analysis and melanin pigmentation study of 31 Nigerian cases
OA Effiom, O Odukoya
April-June 2005, 12(2):131-135
AIM: Clinicopathological analysis and melanin pigmentation occurrence in adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) diagnosed and managed at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital during a 29- year period. METHODS: Records of 31 cases were reviewed and standard epidemiological data were obtained. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides of the cases were retrieved and reevaluated for reconfirmation of diagnosis. Celloidinised paraffin sections of all cases were subjected to Fontana Masson stain and melanin bleach to assess presence of melanin pigment. RESULTS: AOT is an uncommon type of odontogenic tumour that is commoner in younger age group (8-35 years) with site predilection for the anterior maxilla (64.5%). Occurrence of melanin pigment in AOT was very rare as there was positive melanin pigmentation in only one case in spite of the fact that the study was carried out in a predominantly Black population. CONCLUSION: Pattern of occurrence of AOT observed in this Lagos series is similar to previous studies in the scientific literature. Melanin pigmentation is rarely demonstrated in AOT even in a predominantly Black population.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Effect of changes in plasma vitamin E level of vascular responses and lipid peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia subjects
S Gbenebitse, SI Jaja, MO Kehinde
April-June 2005, 12(2):81-84
The effect of vitamin E supplementation (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on blood pressure, forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, plasma vitamin E level and lipid peroxidation status was investigated in adult sickle cell anaemia subjects. Ten adults whose ages ranged from 19.0 to 25.0 years (mean 22.8+/-0.8 years) were studied. Vitamin E supplementation had little or no effect on arterial blood pressure but significantly increased forearm blood flow (p<0.001) and plasma vitamin E level (p<0.001). However it significantly decreased lipid peroxidation status (p<0.001) and forearm vascular resistance (p<0.001). The change in plasma vitamin E concentration correlated negatively with change in lipid peroxidation status (r=-0.8; p=0.003). However, change in plasma vitamin E concentration correlated positively with change in forearm blood flow (r=0.8; p=0.006). There was an inverse correlation between change in plasma lipid peroxidation and change in forearm blood flow (r=-0.7; p=0.03). The study therefore shows that in sickle cell anaemia subjects, vitamin E supplementation increases forearm blood flow and reduces forearm vascular resistance and lipid peroxidation. The increase in forearm blood flow correlates inversely with the reduction in lipid peroxidation. This suggests that in sickle cell anaemia subjects, vitamin E supplementation could cause an increase in forearm blood flow by decreasing plasma lipid peroxidation level.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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Vaginal injuries during coitus in Calabar: a 10-year review
AM Abasiattai, SJ Etuk, EA Bassey, EE Asuquo
April-June 2005, 12(2):140-144
Injuries during coitus could result in considerable morbidity and mortality in women. Identifying their pattern of presentation and predisposing factors will aid in their prevention.STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A descriptive study of patients with coital injuries seen in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (U.C.T.H) Calabar, between 1991 and 2000, with data obtained from case records. RESULTS: Coital injuries constituted 0.7/1000 gynaecological emergencies. Rape (68.0%) was the commonest aetiological factor. It was more common in nulliparous patients (88.0%) and toddlers and teenagers formed the age group most affected. The lower vagina was the most common site of injury (44.0%). Vaginal bleeding was the commonest mode of presentation and hypovolaemic shock, the most common complication. CONCLUSION: Rape is the commonest cause of coital injury in Calabar. Coital injuries should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all cases of abnormal vaginal bleeding particularly in children.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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The influence of foetal haemoglobin on the frequency of vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell anaemia patients
ME Enosolease, OA Ejele, OA Awodu
April-June 2005, 12(2):102-105
OBJECTIVE: Several biological and environmental factors are presumed to account for the morbidity pattern in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Foetal haemoglobin is one of the biological factors thought to decrease morbidity in these patients. We studied the relationship between the foetal haemoglobin levels and vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) as a measure of the morbidity pattern in this category of patients. RESULTS: The mean foetal haemoglobin level was 6.4+0.40% (SEM). Vaso-occlusive crisis was more common at lower levels of foetal haemoglobin particularly when lower than 12% (P=0.01). There was a negative correlation between foetal haemoglobin and vaso-occlusive crisis (r=0.561). These variables were also associated in linear regression and both showed statistical significance (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: We conclude that higher levels of foetal haemoglobin positively influence the occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell anaemia patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
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