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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2022
Volume 29 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 75-172

Online since Saturday, April 23, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Hepatitis B and C seroprevalence among residents in Lagos State, Nigeria: A population-based survey Highly accessed article p. 75
Oluwakemi O Odukoya, Kofoworola A Odeyemi, Oladoyin M Odubanjo, Brenda C Isikekpei, Ugonnaya U Igwilo, Yahaya M Disu, Alero Ann Roberts, Tolulope F Olufunlayo, Yetunde Kuyinu, Nasir Ariyibi, Ugochukwu T Eze, Tayo Awoyale, Olanrewaju Ikpeekha, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya, Adebayo Temitayo Onajole
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_776_21  
Background: Hepatitis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. It is often caused by hepatitis B and C, which are both preventable and treatable. Available information on Hepatitis B and C in Nigeria is based primarily on estimates obtained from specific population sub-groups or hospital-based surveys leaving gaps in population-level knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and associated factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections amongst residents of Lagos State. Methodology: This was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in all the 20 local government areas of Lagos state using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaires. Blood samples were taken (pinprick) from respondents (n = 4862) and tested using hepatitis B and C surface antigen tests after obtaining informed consent. Results: The overall prevalence of HBV infection in Lagos State was 2.1% while the prevalence of HCV infection was 0.1%. Only about half of all the respondents (50.9%) had heard about hepatitis B before the survey. Knowledge of the specific symptoms of HBV was also very low. For instance, only 28.1% of the respondents knew that yellowness of the eyes is associated with hepatitis while < 1% (0.1%) knew that HBV infection is associated with the passage of yellow urine. The most common source of information about hepatitis was the radio (13.0%). Only 36.2% of the respondents knew that HBV infection could be prevented. Overall, 28.8% of the respondents were aware of the hepatitis B vaccine. Less than half (40.9%) felt it was necessary to get vaccinated against HBV, however, a similar proportion (41.9%) would want to be vaccinated against HBV. Only 2.5% of all the respondents had ever received HBV vaccines while 3.5% had ever been tested for hepatitis B before this survey. There was a statistically significant association between HBV infection and respondents' use of shared clippers and work exposure involving contact with body parts and body fluids (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The knowledge, awareness and risk perception of HBV infection were low, however, almost half of the residents were willing to receive hepatitis B vaccinations if offered. It is recommended that the population-based prevention programmes and regular community-based surveillance be conducted by the public health department of Lagos State Ministry of Health. In addition, the strengthening of routine immunisation and vaccination of high-risk groups should be prioritised.
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Risk factors of road traffic accidents in Rural and Urban areas of indonesia based on the national survey of year 2018 Highly accessed article p. 82
Intan Zainafree, Nadia Syukria, Silfia Addina, Muhamad Zakki Saefurrohim
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_777_21  
Context: Indonesia has a large population with a large number of motorised vehicles, so it cannot be separated from traffic accidents. Aims: This study aimed to determine and analyse the advanced level risk factors for road traffic accidents (RTA) in rural and urban areas based on data from the Basic Health Research 2018 (Riskesdas). Methods: This study used Riskesdas data sourced from the National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, which was collected from 34 provinces in Indonesia using a cross-sectional method. The statistical data consisted of 59,423 respondents aged over 15 years old, who had experienced a road traffic injury and lived in rural or urban areas. The data variables analysis was socio-demographic, lifestyle, smoking status, alcohol consumption, mental disorders, nutritional status and use of helmets on motorcycle riders and passengers. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the most dominant risk factors related to RTA in rural and urban areas. Results: The prevalence of RTA in urban areas was 34.1%, while in rural areas was 28.2%. The factors related to traffic accidents in respondents from urban areas (P < 0.005) were sex (1.342 [1.217–1.480]), age (1.111 [1.067–1.156]) and use of helmets on motorcycle riders and passengers (0.662 [0.566–0.771]). Meanwhile, risk factors for respondents from rural areas (P < 0.005) were mental disorders (0.842 [0.743–0.955]), age (1.095 [1.040–1.154]) and use of helmets on motorcycle riders and passengers (0.682 [0.585–0.796]). Conclusions: We found that the prevalence of RTA in urban areas was higher than in rural areas. The dominant risk factors related to RTA in Indonesia were age, sex, mental disorders and the use of helmets on motorcycle riders and passengers. This finding supports the importance of road safety education and the prevention of RTA needs to be done both in urban and rural areas.
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Adverse Events Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study Highly accessed article p. 89
Agiriye Monima Harry, Clement Kevin Edet, Nyarawo Effiong Ekanem, Chinonye Judith Kemdirim, Abasianam Etuk Uduak
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_11_22  
Context: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to over 2,589,638 deaths globally as of March 2021 and speedy discovery of vaccines. Nigeria started the phase one COVID-19 vaccination in March 2021 using the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine. Reports of severe adverse events with the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine resulted in its suspension in some countries necessitating the need to determine its safety. Aims: To assess the prevalence, types and severity of the adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination in Rivers State, Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Subjects and Methods: Simple random sampling method was used to select a total of 428 adults from recipients of the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine within 28 days of vaccination. A questionnaire adapted from World Health Organisation was interviewer-administered through phone calls; responses were recorded on Kobo Toolbox. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis of variables was done and the association between adverse events and age, allergy and medical history were determined. The level of statistical significance was predetermined at a P < 0.05. Results: In this study, 50.5% of respondents reported post-vaccination adverse events out of which 10 (4.6%) were severe (30% of the severe cases were life-threatening, 60% were hospitalised and 10% were placed on bed rest). The most common side effects were fever (73.0%), pain at the injection site (41.2%), fatigue (33.3%), body ache (17.5%) and headache (13.8%). No significant association was observed between the incidence of severe adverse events and participants with allergies or medical history. Conclusions: The adverse events associated with the COVID-19 vaccine were largely mild and resolved within a few days. Further research is required to classify adverse events into categories.
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Assessment of the utility of a screening tool for COVID-19 diagnosis in an accident and emergency department in Lagos, Nigeria: A pilot study p. 96
Erereoghor Otrofanowei, Iorhen Ephraim Akase, Bolaji Oluwarotimi Olopade, Patricia E Akintan, Uyiekpen E Ima-Edomwonyi, Yeside Olubunmi Akinbolagbe, Osigwe Paul Agabi, Danladi Abraham Nmadu, Gbemileke O Akinbode, Adefolarin Opawoye, C Aramide Olasope, Adewale Ogundare, B Abiola Bolarinwa, Oluwakemi Elizabeth Awojumobi-Otokiti, Precious J Enajeroh, Moses Karami, Christopher Imokhuede Esezobor, Gbenga Olorunfemi, Yewande O Oshodi, Ayotunde Ayodeji Oluwole, Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo, Christopher O Bode
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_779_21  
The use of reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard laboratory test for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it has the disadvantage of a long turnaround time and cost. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) formulated a case definition for COVID-19. We sought to determine the utility of a 14-item, point-weighted clinical screening questionnaire adapted from the NCDC case definition in identifying patients more likely to have the disease. This was to aid prompt clinical decision-making. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 113 non-surgical patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Patients were stratified based on screening scores into low (0–2), moderate (3–5) and high (6) pre-test categories. Patients with low and high scores ≥6 were admitted to the A and E and the COVID-19 holding ward, respectively, while the moderate group had chest computed tomography scans to aid further decision-making, pending the outcome of their RT-PCR results. The validity of the triage score as compared to the RT-PCR test result was calculated and the kappa score of agreement was utilised to evaluate the concordance between two triage scores. The optimum cut-off score was also obtained based on the maximal Younden's index. Results: The frequencies of low, moderate and high pre-test scores were 34 (30%), 43 (38.1%) and 36 (31.9%), respectively. Overall, 38.1% (43/113) were RT-PCR positive. RT-PCR was positive in 26.5% (9/34) with low screening scores, 55.8% (24/43) with moderate scores and 27.8% (10/36) with high scores. The sensitivity and specificity of a high score of 6 were 25% and 92.86%, while the lower score of 3 had sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 58.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The screening tool showed a high specificity in its initial design, which suggests that anyone with a low score using this tool has a high probability of testing negative. We recommend a cut-off score of 4 (score A) or 6 (score B) of the current screening tool be used to increase the chances of identifying persons with COVID-19 for RT-PCR testing.
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Impact of corona virus disease 2019 pandemic on paediatric surgery in a sub-saharan tertiary hospital: An observational study p. 102
Justina O Seyi-Olajide, Christopher O Bode, George C Ihediwa, Olumide A Elebute, Felix M Alakaloko, Oluwaseun A Ladipo-Ajayi, Adesoji O Ademuyiwa
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_761_21  
Background: The impact of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on global health, has reached far beyond that caused by the disease itself. With ongoing mutations and the emergence of new strains of the virus alongside repeated waves of the pandemic, the full impact of the pandemic is still evolving and remains difficult to predict or evaluate. In paediatric surgery, it has led to significant disruptions in patient care, the extent and consequence of which are not fully documented in Nigeria. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on services, training and research in a busy paediatric surgery unit during the initial 3-month period of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Methods: This study was an ambispective evaluation of the preceding 3 months before lockdown and the initial 3 months of lockdown. Clinic cancellations, elective and emergency surgeries, delays in access, extra cost of care to patients, impact on training and research, and the psychologic impact of the pandemic on staff and guardians were evaluated. Results: During the 3-month lockdown period, an estimated 78 new cases and 637 follow-up cases could not access care. Ninety-seven elective surgeries in 91 patients were postponed. Two (2.2%) patients' symptoms progressed. All emergency patients received care. Out-of-pocket expenditure increased averagely by $124. The pandemic contributed to delays in seeking (13%), reaching (20%) and receiving care (6%). Trainee participation in surgeries was reduced and academic programmes were suspended. Five staff were exposed to the virus and 3 infected. Conclusion: Paediatric surgery has been negatively impacted by COVID-19. Efforts must focus on planning and implementing interventions to mitigate the long-term impact.
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‘Shifting from anxiety to the new normal’: A qualitative exploration on personal protective equipment use by otorhinolaryngology health-care professionals during COVID-19 pandemic p. 110
Ganesan Sivaraman, Jijitha Lakshmanan, Britzer Paul, Mahalakshmy Thulasingam, Bitty Raghavan, Nipun Raghu, Kalaiarasi Raja, Sunil Kumar Saxena
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_10_22  
Background: The novel coronavirus pandemic has influenced the working practice of health-care professionals who come across symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID patients in their day-to-day practice. Especially, among HCWs in otorhinolaryngology, with the risk of exposure being high, hence were mandated to use personal protective equipment (PPE). Materials and Methods: The change in perceptions and patterns of PPE use throughout the COVID-19 pandemic was studied in detail through interviews conducted among 15 key informants, and the data were analyzed using health belief model in our study. Results: A health belief model explains the trajectory of PPE use by otorhinolaryngology health care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The course of usage of PPE by otorhinolaryngology health-care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic was explained through the health belief model. During the initial days of the COVID-19 pandemic, intense perceived severity and susceptibility to COVID infection led to PPE use, and otorhinolaryngology HCWs resorted to higher grade PPEs which gave optimal protection; but in course of time with a better understanding of the natural course of illness, minimal PPEs without compromising HCW safety were used with minimal discomfort. Perceived severity of COVID infection on self and family, health knowledge, influence of peers, and support from the institution encouraged them in using PPEs. Conclusion: We found that various aspects of health belief model such as the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity of the disease, perceived barriers and benefits in PPE use, self-efficacy, health-related knowledge, and the cues to action influence PPE use among otorhinolaryngology HCWs. The key findings can be applied in behavior change models to promote the use of PPE in the hospitals, especially during the time of pandemic.
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Clinical and pathological patterns of non-epithelial malignant ovarian tumours in Western Saudi Arabia p. 116
Nisreen Mohammad Anfinan, Eman S Shaldoom, Hesham Sait, Omar Baghlaf, Ahmad Alwazzan, Ahmed Mousa, Maram Sait, Bayan Alkhalili, Khalid Sait
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_733_21  
Objective: To report a single-center experience in non-epithelial malignant ovarian tumours (NEMOT), by presenting different clinical and pathological characteristics, management and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic files of all female patients who underwent surgery for NEMOT at the Gynecology Department of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from July 2003 to July 2019. We collected baseline demographic, anthropomorphic and clinical data; pathological characteristics; management and follow-up data; and outcomes including residual disease, recurrence and last follow-up status (deceased or alive). Results: Thirty-three women were included; mean (standard deviation) age = 33.24 (17.72) years, range = 4, 86 years. Granulosa cell tumor was the most frequent subtype diagnosed in 17 (51.5%) patients, followed by germ cell tumours 13 (39.4%). The majority of patients were diagnosed at FIGO Stage I (22, 66.7%) and with tumor Grade 1 (23, 69.7%), while 8 (24.2%) were diagnosed with Grade 3 tumors. Granulosa cell and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours were diagnosed at an older age (mean age = 39.30 vs. 23.92 years) compared to germ cell tumours, respectively (P = 0.012). Two-third of the patients benefited from conservative surgery including oophorectomy + staging, and 16 (48.5%) benefited from chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and platinum being the most common protocol (13, 39.4%) for germ cell tumours. Postoperatively, only 2 (6.1%) patients had residual disease. Recurrence and mortality were reported in one and four patients, respectively, resulting in recurrence rate = 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01%, 15.8%) and mortality rate = 12.1% (95% CI = 3.4%, 28.2%). Conclusions: The present series of NEMOT was predominated by sex cord-stromal cell tumors, which were diagnosed in patients with older age, while germ cell tumours were underrepresented. Although survival rates were comparable to those reported internationally, more consideration should be given to following up patients regarding fertility outcomes to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of treatment success and quality of care.
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Ultrasonographic foetal head circumference and cheek-to-cheek diameter at term as predictors of labour outcomes p. 123
Michael Ademola Agbaje, Abayomi Ibukun Alao, Kola Musliudin Owonikoko
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_739_21  
Background: The clinical uses of ultrasonography have varied and increased over time, especially the ability of ultrasonographic measured parameters to predict the outcomes of labour. The proper understanding of the association between these ultrasonographic parameters, mode of delivery, adverse maternal and foetal outcomes will further improve patient counselling as well as the planning of intrapartum care. Aim: The study explored the ultrasonographic measurement of foetal head circumference (HC) and cheek-to-cheek diameter (CCD) at term as predictors of labour outcomes. Methodology: Eligible pregnant women at term were recruited from the antenatal clinic and had obstetric ultrasound scans done with HC and CCD measured. Maternal and foetal outcomes were measured and included progress in labour, obstetric lacerations, mode of delivery and suspected foetal distress. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: One hundred and thirty-two patients were recruited into the study. Foetal HC measurements ≥35 cm were closely associated with caesarean delivery odds ratio - 2.40 (95% confidence interval - 1.02–5.66. P = 0.046). Neither CCD nor CCD/HC ratio was predictive of the modes of delivery. The occurrence of perineal lacerations and poor progress of labour were observed more frequently with increasing HC and CCD. Conclusions: HC performed well in predicting caesarean delivery as well as perinatal outcomes among parturients. The ultrasonographic measured HC (≥35 cm) is associated with a higher incidence of both obstetric interventions for poor progress of labour and adverse perinatal outcomes in comparison to CCD. The association between HC and labour dystocia was found to be linear. The CCD did not perform well as a predictor of the mode of delivery.
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Anthropometric measurements of term babies delivered in a mission hospital in Southwest Nigeria p. 131
Victoria Iyabo Olafimihan, Adekunle Joseph Ariba, Iyabode Olabisi Florence Dedeke
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_556_21  
Background: Babies birth anthropometric measurements are useful for retrospective assessment of foetal in utero health status, anticipatory care and growth monitoring. At community level, measurements other than birth weight (BW) may help predict low BW (LBW). Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the mean anthropometric measurements of term babies, its comparability with standard values, acceptable cutoff and surrogate for LBW. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 257 term babies delivered by booked mothers at the Sacred Heart Hospital Abeokuta and selected by systematic random sampling. BW, occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), chest circumference (CC), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and crown-heel length (CHL) were measured, and data were analysed using SPSS version 21 with significant P < 0.05 and confident interval of 95%. Results: Mean BW, CC, OFC, CHL and MUAC were 3.25 ± 0.47 kg, 33.32 ± 1.98 cm, 34.7 ± 1.93 cm, 48.16 ± 2.87 cm and 11.57 ± 1.41 cm, respectively, with no significant mean difference between male and female babies. The mean OFC was higher than the national standard, World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study (WHO-MGRS) and INTERGROWTH-21. The mean cutoff for LBW was OFC – 31.89 cm, CC – 29.56 cm, CHL– 43.33 cm and MUAC – 9.35 cm (P = 0.000) with OFC being the best surrogate of LBW at Sensitivity, Specificity and Degree of Accuracy/area under the curve of 66.7%, 97.6% and 82.1% respectively. Conclusions: LBW babies had lower mean anthropometric cutoff values at variance from the WHO-MGRS and INTERGROWTH-21. Mean OFC was higher than both standards reflecting the need for cautious interpretation to prevent misdiagnosis of macrocephaly. We recommend OFC as an alternative for predicting LBW when access to weighing scale is a challenge.
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Tolerance and acceptance for unsedated diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Kaduna, North-West Nigeria p. 138
Husain Yahya, Halima Umar, Bulus Timothy Shekari, Kalli Sani, Muhammad Husain Yahya
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_697_21  
Background: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) using pharyngeal anesthesia, with or without sedation to improve tolerance and acceptance, is now standard practice but the unsedated examination is easier to perform, costs less and is associated with fewer complications. It is, therefore, attractive in resource-limited settings like sub-Saharan Africa but studies about tolerance and acceptance of unsedated UGIE there are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to report the tolerance and acceptance of unsedated UGIE in a tertiary institution in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods: Consecutive patients referred for diagnostic UGIE were requested to report the overall level of discomfort for the procedure on verbal and visual analogue scales and to indicate whether they would accept the procedure in the future. Their pulse rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure were monitored. Results: Of 306 patients (mean age: 45.5 years, 39.2% <40 years, 57.5% of females), 51.3% reported no or mild discomfort and only 5.6% reported severe and intolerable discomfort. Overall, 232 (75.8%) tolerated the procedure well and 229 (79.5%) accepted to have the same procedure in the future. Patients <40 years and those with secondary/post-secondary education were significantly less likely to tolerate the procedure well than older patients (81.1% vs. 87.9%, P = 0.006) and those with lower education (72.7% vs. 86.2%, P = 0.032), respectively. 79.5% accepted to have the procedure in the future, with males significantly more so than females (86.9% vs. 74.4%, P = 0.019). Conclusion: Most patients undergoing unsedated diagnostic UGIE in Kaduna, Nigeria, tolerated the procedure well and accepted to have the same procedure in the future.
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Can the tibial length predict the size of tibial component of total knee arthroplasty? p. 146
Olasode Israel Akinmokun, Eyitayo Oluwasakin Alabi, George Okwudilichukwu Enweluzo, Akindele Rafiu Balogun, Ismail Abidemi Oyebiyi
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_716_21  
Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is performed worldwide. TKA is performed to relief pain, correct deformities and improve mobility in patients with debilitating diseases of their knee joints. Templating is done as pre-operative planning for TKA. Certain parameters, such as shoe size, had been studied as predictor (s) for implant size. This study aimed to determine if the tibial length (TL) can also be as a predictor of a tibial component of TKA. Materials and Methods: TL and tibial plateau width (TPW) measurements were done on dry adult tibiae. Proximal tibiae were traced on tracing paper, to obtain anterior–posterior and lateral tracings. Length of tracings confirmed with measurement on dry bones. A TKA template, converted to 100% scale was used to estimate the tibial baseplate by two orthopaedic surgeons. Results: A total of 51 matured, non-sexed, non-paired tibiae were studied. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between the TL and the TPW (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, a statistically significant positive relationship was also observed between the TL and the tibial implant baseplate (P = 0.0001). The study showed that a particular range of tibia length will accommodate certain sizes of the tibial implant baseplate. Conclusion: The tibia length can be used as a predictor of the size of tibial baseplate of TKA.
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Correlation of palpation anterior fontanometry and cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure in early childhood hydrocephalus p. 151
Mesi Mathew, Abdullahi Onimisi Jimoh, Wilfred Chukwuemeka Mezue, Enoch Ogbonnaya Uche, Mark Chukwunweike Chikani
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_757_21  
Background: The anterior fontanelle (AF) tension has been a traditional clinical method of indirect assessment of intracranial pressure (ICP). How does this time-tested bedside assessment technique compare with an objective ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure? Objective: To determine the correlation of palpation anterior fontanometry and CSF opening pressure in early childhood hydrocephalus. Materials and Methods: Children diagnosed with hydrocephalus who were planned for CSF diversion using ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt were prospectively studied over 18 months. The AF tension was assessed by palpation preoperatively and graded. The CSF opening pressure was measured using sterile disposable plastic manometers after ventricular cannulation intraoperatively. Statistical Analysis: Data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 21. Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U test and ANOVA were used to determine associations based on normality tests. A P < 0.05 was considered significant for associations. Results: Fifty-two children were operated on with AF patency rate of 88.5%. Their age ranged between 2 weeks and 18 months with a mean age of 7.1 ± 5.1 months. The fontanelle tension was tense, full and normal in 63.0%, 26.1% and 10.9% of patients, respectively. The mean CSF opening pressure of 20.5 ± 8.5 cm of H2O was higher than the expected ICP for the age group (t-test 4.754, P = 0.000). All 28 patients with CSF opening pressure >15 cm of H2O had a tense fontanelle, but 10.9% of children with raised ICP have normal AF tension. Conclusion: The mean ICP increases as palpation AF tension increases, but a normal AF tension does not rule out raised ICP.
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Psoriasis in Kaduna, North-West Nigeria: A twenty-year experience p. 155
Husain Yahya
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_15_22  
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which may be associated with joint, cardiovascular, metabolic or psychiatric disease. Countries in North America, Northern Europe and Australia have the highest burden of disease while those in Asia, South America and Africa, the lowest. We report our experience of psoriasis in Kaduna, Nigeria, over 20 years and compare this with previous reports in the same area and in other parts of Nigeria and Africa. Objective: To report the relative incidence, clinical presentation, severity and associations of psoriasis seen over 20 years. Methods: A retrospective review of records of patients with psoriasis seen at two outpatient dermatology clinics in Kaduna, North-West Nigeria, over 20 years. Results: Diagnosis of psoriasis was made in 218 of 39,037 (0.6%) patients with new skin disease: Mean age 35.2 years, range (6 months to 80 years), 60% <40 years, males constituted 64.2%. Mean age of onset was 30.5 years with a quarter developing psoriasis before age 20 and 71.4% before 40 years. Psoriasis presented earlier in females than males (mean age of onset 27.6 vs. 32.2 years, P= 0.052) but was less severe. Psoriasis types were: Plaque 88.1%, guttate 6%, erythrodermic 4.6% and sebopsoriasis 0.9%. Only four patients had joint disease and other associations were infrequent. Overall, 80.3% had mild psoriasis and 13.2% had a family history. Conclusion: Psoriasis remains a rare and mild disease in Kaduna and is infrequently associated with joint and other systemic disease but similar in other respects to the condition elsewhere.
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Are there associations between the occurrence of dental fluorosis and the experience of dentine hypersensitivity? A cross-sectional study p. 161
Paul Ikhodaro Idon, Oluwafeyisayo Francis Ikusika, Olawale Akeem Sotunde, Temiloluwa Olawale Ogundare
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_7_22  
Objectives: Associations between the occurrence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) and dental fluorosis (DF) have been suggested. Testing this association requires studies among populations with both conditions. This study aimed to determine the association between DF and the experience of DH among a population endemic for DF. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2021 over 6 months among 428 adult patients. Participants' demographics were collected, followed by verbal screening for DH and oral examinations. Clinical assessment for DH was carried out by tactile and evaporative methods. The presence and severity of DF were also assessed using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index. Data analysis included Chi-square and correlation statistics to assess the presence and strength of associations. Results: The overall prevalence of DH was 31.1%. A higher proportion (41.1%, P < 0.001) of participants with DF had DH than those without DF. The association between DH and DF was minimal but statistically significant (r = 0.174, P < 0.001). Among those with DF, the prevalence of DH was highest in participants with severe fluorosis (50%, P = 0.740). The proportion of sensitive teeth to the teeth examined was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for participants with DF (289/4167, 6.9%) than participants without DF (267/6758, 4%). This proportion was also highest for severe DF (20/254, 7.9%, P = 0.572) than the mild and moderate forms. Conclusion: DH was more prevalent among individuals with DF. The prevalence of DH was not dependent on the severity of DF.
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Pattern and prevalence of dental anomalies among a paediatric population in Lagos, Nigeria p. 167
Olubukola O Olatosi, Afolabi Oyapero, Kehinde O Akinwande, Oladipupo Solomon Ayedun, Emmanuel Temitope Aladenika, Olorunfemi I Obe
DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_23_22  
Background: Dental anomalies are craniofacial abnormalities in the size, structure or number of the teeth. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of dental anomalies among children aged 0–16 years attending the Paediatric Dental Clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used and data were obtained from the dental records of the Dental Clinic from January 2014 to August 2019 by two calibrated examiners, who are co-authors of the manuscript. To test for statistical differences, Chi-squared test was utilised for the categorical variables. The prevalence of the different dental anomalies was estimated and presented with frequencies. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 6175 patients' dental records reviewed, 50.85% (n = 3150) were male and the highest proportion of 45.4% (n = 2807) were aged between 6 and 10 years, with a mean age of 8.62 ± 3.85 years. A total of 1090 (17.52%) had dental anomalies; 465 (7.53) anomalies were in the maxilla, 263 (4.6) were in the mandible while 360 (5.83) were in both. The most common anomaly was hypoplasia 550 (9.06%), followed by retained primary tooth 546 (8.84%) and hypodontia 84 (1.36%). Dentinogenesis imperfecta 1 (0.02) and transposition 1 (0.02) were the least prevalent anomalies. Retained primary teeth (5.8%) and the cusp of Carabelli (0.4%) were slightly more prevalent among males. However, females had a higher prevalence of natal/neonatal teeth (0.4%), fusion/germination (0.4%), hypodontia (1.5%) and peg-shaped lateral incisors (0.9%). Conclusion: Dental anomalies' prevalence in this study was 17.52%, with a higher occurrence of anomalies in the maxilla. Hypoplasia was the most prevalent anomaly, after which was retained primary tooth, then hypodontia. Prompt diagnosis and preventive interventions are crucial for the appropriate management of these dental anomalies.
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