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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 272-277

The risk factors and pattern of traumatic dental injuries in 10–12-year olds in Kano, Nigeria

1 Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Child Dental Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
3 Department of Child Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Chizoba Chineme Okolo
Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Bayero University Kano, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_145_22

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Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) rank among the most common conditions in children and adolescents. Nigerian dental trauma data are largely based on studies that were conducted in the southern parts of Nigeria. This study was designed to identify the risk factors and the pattern of TDIs among school-age children in northern Nigeria. Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify the risk factors for and to determine the pattern of dental injuries among 10–12-year-old males in Kano, northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and ninety-six 10–12-year olds were selected through a multistage sampling of school children, street children and rehabilitated children in Kano and examined for TDIs using the WHO protocols. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20. Statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. Results: Six hundred and ninety-four 10–12-year olds participated in the study; The prevalence of TDIs was 6.6%. Being a street-child was associated with 30% higher risk for dental injuries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60 - 3.1; P = 0.48), whereas living as a rehabilitated street child (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; P = 0.02) and older age were associated with a reduced risk (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.39 - 1.01; P = 0.06) to injuries. The most common type of trauma was enamel–dentine injuries or Ellis II, and the most common cause was falls. Street children and low-age groups had more single-tooth injuries (85.7% and 85.0%, respectively). The commonly injured teeth were the maxillary right and left central incisors. Conclusion: Living on the street and young age were associated with the likelihood for injuries in male adolescents in Kano. The maxillary central incisors were the commonly affected teeth.

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