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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 266-272

Distribution pattern and prevalence of haematological cancers among adults in Abakaliki, South-Eastern Nigeria


1 Department of Haematology and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
3 Department of Morbid Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
4 Department of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria
5 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
6 Department of Chemical Pathology, Alex Ekwueme Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria
7 Department of Physiotherap, Alex Ekwueme Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria
8 Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
9 National Cancer Control Programme, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ngozi Immaculata Ugwu
Department of Haematology and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_636_21

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Background: Haematological cancers are clonal diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, with the distribution pattern not known in our locality. This study aimed to describe the distribution pattern and prevalence of haematological cancers among adults in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was an 8-year retrospective study in which the hospital records/case notes of adult patients diagnosed and managed for haematological cancers from May 2012 to April 2020 were reviewed. Data obtained were analysed with the SPSS software, version 20. Results: One hundred and thirty-five cases of haematological cancers were included in the study, with 72 (53.4%) males and 63 (46.6%) females and male-to-female ratio of 1.1:1. The age range was 18–82 years, with a mean age of 49 ± 17 years. Lymphoid malignancies predominate more than myeloid (101 [74.8%] vs. 34 [25.2%]). The leukaemias were more predominant than the lymphomas and myeloma accounting for 48.2%, 36.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Chronic leukaemias were more common than the acute leukaemias with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) being the most common accounting for 24.4% of haematological cancers. In general, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was the most common haematologic cancer accounting for 35 (25.9%), followed by CLL 33 (24.4%), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) 17 (12.6%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) 14 (10.4%) and multiple myeloma (MM) 10 (7.4%). Others include acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) 9 (6.7%) and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) 6 (4.4%). Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and polycythaemia vera (PV), each contributed 3% while myelofibrosis (MF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET) contributed 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Conclusion: This study has shown that haematological cancers are not uncommon in our locality with NHL being the most common, followed by CLL, CML, HL, MM, ALL, AML, MDS, PV. MF and ET in that order. The burden of haematological cancers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria is therefore significant and should be prioritised in health-care policy formulation and management.


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