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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 233-239

Phenotypic profile and antibiogram of biofilm-producing bacteria isolates from diabetic foot ulcers in Zaria, Nigeria

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Ahmadu University Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
4 Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu University Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Yahaya Usman
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_552_21

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Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) present with high morbidity and reduce patient's quality of life. There is a gross paucity of data on biofilm-producing bacteria in DFU Infection in North-Western Nigeria. The study sought to determine the biofilm-forming ability of bacteria isolates from DFUs and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in Zaria, North-Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study of patients with DFUs was conducted from June 2018 to February 2020. Consecutive biopsies were aseptically collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified using a Microgen kit. Biofilm forming ability and antibiogram of isolates were determined using microtitre plate and disk diffusion methods, respectively. Results: Of the 225 participants enrolled, males constituted the majority, 144 (64.0%) with 88 (36.0%) females, the median age of participants was 54 (48–60) years, and the age range was 36–77 years. A total of 172 bacteria were isolated, and 123 (71.5%) were biofilm producers. Staphylococcus aureus (26.7%) was the highest biofilm producer, while Citrobacter freundii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were the least biofilm producers, 1 (0.6%) each. A disproportionate resistance pattern was demonstrated among the biofilm and non-biofilm producers against the cephalosporins tested, ceftazidime (68% vs. 18%), ceftriaxone (50% vs. 8.0%) and cefotaxime (21% vs. 0.0%). About 46% and 68% of the biofilm producers were resistant to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. While only 2% of the non-biofilm producers were resistant to imipenem, 11% of the biofilm producers were resistant to it. Conclusion: These findings revealed a high proportion of biofilm-producing bacteria and were more resistant than non-biofilm producers.

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