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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-80

Clinical presentation of COVID-19-positive and -negative patients in Lagos Nigeria: A comparative study

1 Mainland Hospital, Yaba, Nigeria
2 Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria
3 Department of Anaesthesia, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria
4 Department of Disease Control, Lagos State Ministry of Health, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Olusola Adedeji Adejumo
Mainland Hospital, Yaba, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_547_21

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Background: A lot has been documented about the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the clinical features of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 positive and negative patients admitted in Lagos State. Methods: Medical records of all patients admitted in 15 isolation centres across Lagos state between 27th February 2020 and 30th September 2020, were abstracted and reviewed. We compared the clinical features, co-morbidities and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 positive and negative patients. Results: A total of 3157 records of patients admitted in 15 isolation centres in Lagos State were reviewed of which 302 (9.6%) tested negative to RT-PCR COVID-19. There was no gender difference between COVID-19 positive and negative patients (P = 0.687). The average age of the negative patients was higher (46.8 ± 18.3 years) than positive patients (41.9 ± 15.5 years) (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of the COVID-19 negative patients had co-morbidity (38.1% vs. 27.8%), were symptomatic (67.5% vs. 44.6%) and higher mortality (21.9% vs. 6.6%) than positive patients (P < 0.001). The percentages with hypertension (26.2% vs. 21.0%, P = 0.038), diabetes (17.2% vs. 9.4%, P < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (2.3% vs. 0.9%, P < 0.029) and cancer (2.3% vs. 0.5%, P < 0.002) were more among patients without COVID-19. More patients without COVID-19 presented with fever (36.1% vs. 18.8%), cough (33.7% vs. 23.1%) and breathlessness (40.8% vs. 16.1%) than the positive patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anosmia and dysgeusia were strongly associated with COVID-19. Clinical decision-making should only be used to prioritise testing and isolation of patients suspected to have COVID-19, especially in settings with limited access to diagnostic kits.

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