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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 137-142

Comparative tetanus antibody response of Nigerian children to diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus and pentavalent vaccines

1 Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
3 Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
4 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Emmanuel Eyo Ekanem
Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar, Calabar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_41_18

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Background: In Nigeria and many parts of the world, the pentavalent vaccine is replacing the diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine in tetanus prevention. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the anti-tetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) response of children who received DPT with those who received the pentavalent vaccine. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of anti-tetanus IgG levels in children aged 6 months to 5 years who received DPT and in children who received the pentavalent vaccine. IgG antibody levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protective level was set at ≥0.1 IU/ml. Results: One hundred and twenty-two out of 130 children (93.9%) who had received DPT had protective levels of anti-tetanus IgG compared to 278 out of 288 children (96.5%) who had received the pentavalent vaccine. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.21). The median IgG antibody level in those who received DPT was 1.1 IU/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 0.4–1.8) compared with 0.6 IU/ml (IQR 0.4–1.4) in those who received pentavalent vaccine (P = 0.006), with age being the only predictor of variability in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion/Recommendation: DPT and pentavalent vaccines are equally effective in inducing protective levels of anti-tetanus IgG in children. Vaccination with the pentavalent vaccine, which is the current policy in Nigeria and many other parts of the world, should continue.

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