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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 195-201

Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches

From the Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Ilorin and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication14-Jan-2016

Correspondence Address:
Oladimeji Akeem Bolarinwa
From the Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Ilorin and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1117-1936.173959

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The importance of measuring the accuracy and consistency of research instruments (especially questionnaires) known as validity and reliability, respectively, have been documented in several studies, but their measure is not commonly carried out among health and social science researchers in developing countries. This has been linked to the dearth of knowledge of these tests. This is a review article which comprehensively explores and describes the validity and reliability of a research instrument (with special reference to questionnaire). It further discusses various forms of validity and reliability tests with concise examples and finally explains various methods of analysing these tests with scientific principles guiding such analysis.

Keywords: Questionnaire, reliability, social and health, validity

How to cite this article:
Bolarinwa OA. Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches. Niger Postgrad Med J 2015;22:195-201

How to cite this URL:
Bolarinwa OA. Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches. Niger Postgrad Med J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Dec 7];22:195-201. Available from: https://www.npmj.org/text.asp?2015/22/4/195/173959

  Introduction Top

The different measurements in social science research require quantification of abstracts, intangible and construct that may not be observable. [1] However, these quantification will come in the different forms of inference. In addition, the inferences made will depend on the type of measurement. [1] These can be observational, self-report, interview and record review. The various measurements will ultimately require measurement tools through which the values will be captured. One of the most common tasks often encountered in social science research is ascertaining the validity and reliability of a measurement tool. [2] The researchers always wish to know if the measurement tool employed actually measures the intended research concept or construct (is it valid? or true measures?) or if the measurement tools used to quantify the variables provide stable or consistent responses (is it reliable? or repeatable?). As simple as this may seems, it is often omitted or just mentioned passively in the research proposal or report. [2] This has been adduced to the dearth of skills and knowledge of validity and reliability test analysis among social and health science researchers. From the author's personal observation among researchers in developing countries, most students and young researchers are not able to distinguish validity from reliability. Likewise, they do not have the prerequisite to understand the principles that underline validity and reliability testing of a research measurement tool.

This article therefore sets out to review the principles and methods of validity and reliability measurement tools used in social and health science researches. To achieve the stated goal, the author reviewed currents articles (both print and online), scientific textbooks, lecture notes/presentations and health programme papers. This is with a view to critically review current principles and methods of reliability and validity tests as they are applicable to questionnaire use in social and health researches.

Validity expresses the degree to which a measurement measures what it purports to measure. Several varieties have been described, including face validity, construct validity, content validity and criterion validity (which could be concurrent and predictive validity). These validity tests are categorised into two broad components namely; internal and external validities. [3],[4],[5] Internal validity refers to how accurately the measures obtained from the research was actually quantifying what it was designed to measure whereas external validity refers to how accurately the measures obtained from the study sample described the reference population from which the study sample was drawn. [5]

Reliability refers to the degree to which the results obtained by a measurement and procedure can be replicated. [3],[4],[5] Though reliability importantly contributes to the validity of a questionnaire, it is however not a sufficient condition for the validity of a questionnaire. [6] Lack of reliability may arise from divergence between observers or instruments of measurement such as a questionnaire or instability of the attribute being measured [3],[4] which will invariably affect the validity of such questionnaire. There are three aspects of reliability, namely: Equivalence, stability and internal consistency (homogeneity). [5] It is important to understand the distinction between these three aspects as it will guide the researcher on the proper assessment of reliability of a research tool such as questionnaire. [7] [Figure 1] shows graphical presentation of possible combinations of validity and reliability. [8]
Figure 1: Graphical presentation of possible combinations of validity and reliability

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Questionnaire is a predetermined set of questions used to collect data. [2] There are different formats of questionnaire such as clinical data, social status and occupational group.[3] It is a data collection 'tool' for collecting and recording information about a particular issue of interest. [2],[5] It should always have a definite purpose that is related to the objectives of the research, and it needs to be clear from the outset on how the findings will be used. [2],[5] Structured questionnaires are usually associated with quantitative research, which means research that is concerned with numbers (how many? how often? how satisfied?). It is the mostly used data collection instrument in health and social science research. [9]

In the context of health and social science research, questionnaires can be used in a variety of survey situations such as postal, electronic, face-to-face (F2F) and telephone. [9] Postal and electronic questionnaires are known as self-completion questionnaires, i.e., respondents complete them by themselves in their own time. F2F and telephone questionnaires are used by interviewers to ask a standard set of questions and record the responses that people give to them. [9] Questionnaires that are used by interviewers in this way are sometimes known as interview schedules. [9] It could be adapted from an already tested one or could be developed as a new data tool specific to measure or quantify a particular attribute. These conditions therefore warrant the need to test validity and reliability of questionnaire. [2],[5],[9]

  Methods Used for Validity Test of a Questionnaire Top

A drafted questionnaire should always be ready for establishing validity. Validity is the amount of systematic or built-in error in questionnaire. [5],[9] Validity of a questionnaire can be established using a panel of experts which explore theoretical construct as shown in [Figure 2]. This form of validity exploits how well the idea of a theoretical construct is represented in an operational measure (questionnaire). This is called a translational or representational validity. Two subtypes of validity belongs to this form namely; face validity and content validity. [10] On the other hand, questionnaire validity can be established with the use of another survey in the form of a field test and this examines how well a given measure relates to one or more external criterion, based on empirical constructs as shown in [Figure 2]. These forms could be criterion-related validity [10],[11] and construct validity. [11] While some authors believe that criterion-related validity encompasses construct validity, [10] others believe both are separate entities. [11] According to the authors who put the 2 as separate entities, predictive validity and concurrence validity are subtypes of criterion-related validity while convergence validity, discriminant validity, known-group validity and factorial validity are sub-types of construct validity [Figure 2]. [10] In addition, some authors included hypothesis-testing validity as a form of construct validity. [12] The detailed description of the subtypes are described in the next paragraphs.
Figure 2: Graphical representation of the subtypes of various forms of validity tests

Click here to view

  Face Validity Top

Some authors [7],[13] are of the opinion that face validity is a component of content validity while others believe it is not. [2],[14],[15] Face validity is established when an individual (and or researcher) who is an expert on the research subject reviewing the questionnaire (instrument) concludes that it measures the characteristic or trait of interest. [7],[13] Face validity involves the expert looking at the items in the questionnaire and agreeing that the test is a valid measure of the concept which is being measured just on the face of it. [15] This means that they are evaluating whether each of the measuring items matches any given conceptual domain of the concept. Face validity is often said to be very casual, soft and many researchers do not consider this as an active measure of validity. [11] However, it is the most widely used form of validity in developing countries. [15]

  Content Validity Top

Content validity pertains to the degree to which the instrument fully assesses or measures the construct of interest. [7],[15],[16],[17] For example, a researcher is interested in evaluating employees' attitudes towards a training program on hazard prevention within an organisation. He wants to ensure that the questions (in the questionnaire) fully represent the domain of attitudes towards the occupational hazard prevention. The development of a content valid instrument is typically achieved by a rational analysis of the instrument by raters (experts) familiar with the construct of interest or experts on the research subject. [15],[16],[17] Specifically, raters will review all of the questionnaire items for readability, clarity and comprehensiveness and come to some level of agreement as to which items should be included in the final questionnaire. [15] The rating could be a dichotomous where the rater indicates whether an item is 'favourable' (which is assign a score of +1) or 'unfavourable' (which is assign score of +0). [15] Over the years however, different ratings have been proposed and developed. These could be in Likert scaling or absolute number ratings. [18],[19],[20],[21] Item rating and scale level rating have been proposed for content validity. The item-rated content validity indices (CVI) are usually denoted as I-CVI. [15] While the scale-level CVI termed S-CVI will be calculated from I-CVI. [15] S-CVI means the level of agreement between raters. Sangoseni et al.[15] proposed a S-CVI of ≥0.78 as significant level for inclusion of an item into the study. The Fog Index, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid readability formula and Gunning-Fog Index are formulas that have also been used to determine readability in validity. [7],[12] Major drawback of content validity is that it is also adjudged to be highly subjective like face validity. However, in some cases, researchers could combine more than one form of validity to increase validity strength of the questionnaire. For instance, face validity has been combined with content validity [15],[22],[23] criterion validity. [13]

  Criterion-related Validity Top

Criterion-related validity is assessed when one is interested in determining the relationship of scores on a test to a specific criterion. [24],[25] It is a measure of how well questionnaire findings stack up against another instrument or predictor. [5],[25] Its major disadvantage is that such predictor may not be available or easy to establish. There are 2 variants of this validity type as follows:


This assesses the newly developed questionnaire against a highly rated existing standard (gold standard). When the criterion exists at the same time as the measure, we talk about concurrent validity. [24],[25],[26],[27] Concurrent validity refers to the ability of a test to predict an event in the present form. For instance, in a simplest form, a researcher may use questionnaire to elucidate diabetic patients' blood sugar level reading in the last hospital follow-up visits and compare this response to laboratory reading of blood glucose for such patient.


It assesses the ability of the questionnaire (instrument) to forecast future events, behaviour, attitudes or outcomes. This is assessed using correlation coefficient. Predictive validity is the ability of a test to measure some event or outcome in the future. [24],[28] A good example of predictive validity is the use of hypertensive patients' questionnaire on medication adherence to medication to predict their future medical outcome such as systolic blood pressure control. [28],[29]

  Construct Validity Top

Construct validity is the degree to which an instrument measures the trait or theoretical construct that it is intended to measure. [5],[16],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34] It does not have a criterion for comparison rather it utilizes a hypothetical construct for comparison. [5],[11],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34] It is the most valuable and most difficult measure of validity. Basically, it is a measure of how meaningful the scale or instrument is when it is in practical use. [5],[24] There are four types of evidence that can be obtained for the purpose of construct validity depending on the research problem, as discussed below:

Convergent validity

There is evidence that the same concept measured in different ways yields similar results. In this case, one could include two different tests. In convergent validity where different measures of the same concept yield similar results, a researcher uses self-report versus observation (different measures). [12],[33],[34],[35],[36] The 2 scenarios given below illustrate this concept.

Scenario one

A researcher could place meters on respondent's television (TV) sets to record the time that people spend with certain health programmes on TV. Then, this record can be compared with survey results on 'exposure to health program on televised' using questionnaire.

Scenario two

The researcher could send someone to observe respondent's TV use at their home and compare the observation results with the survey results using questionnaire.

Discriminant validity

There is evidence that one concept is different from other closely related concepts. [12],[34],[36] Using the scenarios of TV health programme exposure above, the researcher can decide to measure the exposure to TV entertainment programmes and determine if they differ from TV health programme exposure measures. In this case, the measures of exposure to TV health programme should not be highly related to the measures of exposure to TV entertainment programmes.

Known-group validity

In known-group validity, a group with already established attribute of the outcome of construct is compared with a group in whom the attribute is not yet established. [11],[37] Since the attribute of the two groups of respondents is known, it is expected that the measured construct will be higher in the group with related attribute but lower in the group with unrelated attribute. [11],[36],[37],[38] For example, in a survey that used questionnaire to explore depression among two groups of patients with clinical diagnosis of depression and those without. It is expected (in known-group validity) that the construct of depression in the questionnaire will be scored higher among the patients with clinically diagnosed depression than those without the diagnosis. Another example was shown in a study by Singh et al.[38] where cognitive interview study was conducted among school pupils in 6 European countries.

Factorial validity

This is an empirical extension of content validity. This is because it validates the contents of the construct employing the statistical model called factor analysis. [11],[39],[40],[41],[42] It is usually employed when the construct of interest is in many dimensions which form different domains of a general attribute. In the analysis of factorial validity, the several items put up to measure a particular dimension within a construct of interest is supposed to be highly related to one another than those measuring other dimensions. [11],[39],[40],[41],[42] For instance, using health-related quality of life questionnaire using short form - 36 version 2 (SF-36v2). This tool has 8 dimensions and it is therefore expected that all the items of SF-36v2 questionnaire measuring social function (SF), which is one of the 8 dimension, should be highly related than those items measuring mental health domain which measure another dimension. [43]

Hypothesis-testing validity

Evidence that a research hypothesis about the relationship between the measured concept (variable) or other concepts (variables), derived from a theory, is supported. [12],[44] In the case of TV viewing, for example, there is a social learning theory stating how violent behaviour can be learned from observing and modelling televised physical violence. From this theory, we could derive a hypothesis stating a positive correlation between physical aggression and the amount of televised physical violence viewing. If the evidence collected supports the hypothesis, we can conclude that there is a high degree of construct validity in the measurements of physical aggression and viewing of televised physical violence since the two theoretical concepts are measured and examined in the hypothesis-testing process.

  Methods Used for Reliability Test of a Questionnaire Top

Reliability is an extent to which a questionnaire, test, observation or any measurement procedure produces the same results on repeated trials. In short, it is the stability or consistency of scores over time or across raters. [7] Keep in mind that reliability pertains to scores not people. Thus, in research, one would never say that someone was reliable. As an example, consider judges in a platform diving competition. The extent to which they agree on the scores for each contestant is an indication of reliability. Similarly, the degree to which an individual's responses (i.e., their scores) on a survey would stay the same over time is also a sign of reliability. [7] It is worthy to note that lack of reliability may arise from divergences between observers or instruments of measurement or instability of the attribute being measured. [3] Reliability of the questionnaire is usually carried out using a pilot test. Reliability could be assessed in three major forms; test-retest reliability, alternate-form reliability and internal consistency reliability. These are discussed below.

  Test-retest Reliability (or Stability) Top

Test-retest correlation provides an indication of stability over time. [5],[12],[27],[37] This aspect of reliability or stability is said to occur when the same or similar scores are obtained with repeated testing with the same group of respondents. [5],[25],[35],[37] In other words, the scores are consistent from 1 time to the next. Stability is assessed through a test-retest procedure that involves administering the same measurement instrument such as questionnaire to the same individuals under the same conditions after some period of time. It is the most common form in surveys for reliability test of questionnaire.

Test-rest reliability is estimated with correlations between the scores at time 1 and those at time 2 (to time x). Two assumptions underlie the use of the test-retest procedure; [12]

  • The first required assumption is that the characteristic that is measured does not change over the time period called 'testing effect' [11]
  • The second assumption is that the time period is long enough yet short in time that the respondents' memories of taking the test at time 1 do not influence their scores at time 2 and subsequent test administrations called 'memory effect'.

It is measured by having the same respondents complete a survey at two different points in time to see how stable the responses are. In general, correlation coefficient (r) values are considered good if r ≥ 0.70. [38],[45]

If data are recorded by an observer, one can have the same observer make two separate measurements. The comparison between the two measurements is intra-observer reliability. In using this form of reliability, one needs to be careful with questionnaire or scales that measure variables which are likely to change over a short period of time, such as energy, happiness and anxiety because of maturation effect. [24] If the researcher has to use such variables, then he has to make sure that test-retest is done over very short periods of time. Potential problem with test-retest in practice effect is that the individuals become familiar with the items and simply answer based on their memory of the last answer. [45]

  Alternate-form Reliability (or Equivalence) Top

Alternate form refers to the amount of agreement between two or more research instruments such as two different questionnaires on a research construct that are administered at nearly the same point in time. [7] It is measured through a parallel form procedure in which one administers alternative forms of the same measure to either the same group or different group of respondents. It uses differently worded questionnaire to measure the same attribute or construct. [45] Questions or responses are reworded or their order is changed to produce two items that are similar but not identical. This administration of the various forms occurs at the same time or following some time delay. The higher the degree of correlation between the two forms, the more equivalent they are. In practice, the parallel forms procedure is seldom implemented, as it is difficult, if not impossible, to verify that two tests are indeed parallel (i.e., have equal means, variances and correlations with other measures). Indeed, it is difficult enough to have one well-developed instrument or questionnaire to measure the construct of interest let alone two. [7]

Another situation in which equivalence will be important is when the measurement process entails subjective judgements or ratings being made by more than one person. [5],[7] Say, for example, that we are a part of a research team whose purpose is to interview people concerning their attitudes towards health educational curriculum for children. It should be self-evident to the researcher that each rater should apply the same standards towards the assessment of the responses. The same can be said for a situation in which multiple individuals are observing health behaviour. The observers should agree as to what constitutes the presence or absence of a particular health behaviour as well as the level to which the behaviour is exhibited. In these scenarios, equivalence is demonstrated by assessing inter-observer reliability which refers to the consistency with which observers or raters make judgements. [7]

The procedure for determining inter-observer reliability is:

No of agreements/no of opportunities for agreement ×100.

Thus, in a situation in which raters agree in a total of 75 times out of 90 opportunities (i.e. unique observations or ratings) produces 83% agreement that is 75/90 = 0.83 × 100 = 83%.

  Internal Consistency Reliability (or Homogeneity) Top

Internal consistency concerns the extent to which items on the test or instrument are measuring the same thing. The appeal of an internal consistency index of reliability is that it is estimated after only one test administration and therefore avoids the problems associated with testing over multiple time periods. [5] Internal consistency is estimated via the split-half reliability index [5] and coefficient alpha index [22],[23],[25],[37],[42],[46],[47],[48],[49] which is the most common used form of internal consistency reliability. Sometimes, Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) index was used. [7],[50]

The split-half estimate entails dividing up the test into two parts (e.g. odd/even items or first half of the items/second half of the items), administering the two forms to the same group of individuals and correlating the responses. [7],[10] Coefficient alpha and KR-20 both represent the average of all possible split-half estimates. The difference between the two is when they would be used to assess reliability. Specifically, coefficient alpha is typically used during scale development with items that have several response options (i.e., 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) whereas KR-20 is used to estimate reliability for dichotomous (i.e., yes/no; true/false) response scales. [7]

The formula to compute KR-20 is:

KR-20 = n/(n − 1)[1 − Sum(piqi)/Var(X)].


n = Total number of items

Sum(piqi) = Sum of the product of the probability of alternative responses

Var(X) = Composite variance.

And to calculate coefficient alpha (a) by Allen and Yen, 1979: [51]

a = n/(n − 1)[1 − Sum Var (Yi)/Var (X)].

Where n = Number of items

Sum Var(Yi) = Sum of item variances

Var(X) = Composite variance.

It should be noted that KR-20 and Cronbach alpha can easily be estimated using several statistical analysis software these days. Therefore, researchers do not have to go through the laborious exercise of memorising the mathematical formula given above. As a rule of thumb, the higher the reliability value, the more reliable the measure. The general convention in research has been prescribed by Nunnally and Bernstein, [52] which states that one should strive for reliability values of 0.70 or higher. It is worthy of note that reliability values increase as test length increases. [53] That is, the more items we have in our scale to measure the construct of interest, the more reliable our scale will become. However, the problem with simply increasing the number of scale items when performing applied research is that respondents are less likely to participate and answer completely when confronted with the prospect of replying to a lengthy questionnaire. [7] Therefore, the best approach is to develop a scale that completely measures the construct of interest and yet does so in as parsimonious or economical manner as is possible. A well-developed yet brief scale may lead to higher levels of respondent participation and comprehensiveness of responses so that one acquires a rich pool of data with which to answer the research question.

  Short Note on SPSS and Reliability Test Top

Reliability can be established using a pilot test by collecting data from 20 to 30 subjects not included in the sample. Data collected from pilot test can be analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, by IBM incorporated) or any other related software. SPSS provides two key pieces of information in the output viewer. These are 'correlation matrix' and 'view alpha if item deleted' columns. [54],[55] Cronbach alpha (a) is the most commonly used measure of internal consistency reliability [45] and so it will be discussed here. Conditions that could affect Cronbach values are [54],[55]

  1. Numbers of items; scale of <10 variables could cause Cronbach alpha to be low
  2. Distribution of score; normality increases Cronbach alpha value while skewed data reduces it
  3. Timing; Cronbach alpha does not indicate the stability or consistency of the test over time
  4. Wording of the items; negative-worded questionnaire should be reversed before scoring
  5. Items with 0, 1 and negative scores: Ensure that items/statements that have 0 s, 1 s and negatives are eliminated.

The detailed step by step procedure for the reliability analysis using SPSS can be found on internet and standard tests. [54],[55] But, note that the reliability coefficient (alpha) can range from 0 to 1, with 0 representing a questionnaire that is not reliable and 1 representing absolutely reliable questionnaire. A reliability coefficient (alpha) of 0.70 or higher is considered acceptable reliability in SPSS.

  Conclusion Top

This article reviewed validity and reliability of questionnaire as an important research tool in social and health science research. The article observed the importance of validity and reliability tests in research and gave both literary and technical meanings of these tests. Various forms and methods of analysing validity and reliability of questionnaire were discussed with the main aim of improving the skills and knowledge of these tests among researchers in developing countries.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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90 Using Videos in Blended E-Learning for a Structural Steel Design Course
Bilal EL-Ariss,Essam Zaneldin,Waleed Ahmed
Education Sciences. 2021; 11(6): 290
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91 Slaughter Conditions and Slaughtering of Pregnant Cows in Southeast Nigeria: Implications to Meat Quality, Food Safety and Security
Ugochinyere J. Njoga,Emmanuel O. Njoga,Obichukwu C. Nwobi,Festus O. Abonyi,Henry O. Edeh,Festus E. Ajibo,Nichodemus Azor,Abubakar Bello,Anjani K. Upadhyay,Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala,Malgorzata Korzeniowska,Raquel P. F. Guiné
Foods. 2021; 10(6): 1298
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92 Road Safety Perception Questionnaire (RSPQ) in Latin America: A Development and Validation Study
Fabricio Esteban Espinoza Molina,Blanca del Valle Arenas Ramirez,Francisco Aparicio Izquierdo,Diana Carolina Zúñiga Ortega
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5): 2433
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93 Different Domains of Dengue Research in Malaysia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Questionnaire-Based Studies
Rhanye Mac Guad,Yuan Seng Wu,Yin Nwe Aung,Shamala Devi Sekaran,André Barretto Bruno Wilke,Wah Yun Low,Maw Shin Sim,Rogie Royce Carandang,Mohammad Saffree Jeffree,Hamed Taherdoost,Caroline Sunggip,Constance Liew Sat Lin,Chandrika Murugaiah,Vetriselvan Subramaniyan,Nornazirah Azizan
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9): 4474
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94 Which Risk Factors Matter More for Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic? An Application Approach of Gradient Boosting Decision Trees
Yiyi Chen,Ye Liu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11): 5879
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95 Socio-Economic Inequalities in Access to Drinking Water among Inhabitants of Informal Settlements in South Africa
Marieke J. Oskam, Milena Pavlova, Charles Hongoro, Wim Groot
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(19): 10528
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96 Dose Administration Aid Service in Community Pharmacies: Characterization and Impact Assessment
André Vicente, Beatriz Mónico, Mónica Lourenço, Olga Lourenço
Pharmacy. 2021; 9(4): 190
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97 Identification and Evaluation of Methodologies to Assess the Quality of Mobile Health Apps in High-, Low-, and Middle-Income Countries: Rapid Review
Fionn Woulfe, Kayode Philip Fadahunsi, Simon Smith, Griphin Baxter Chirambo, Emma Larsson, Patrick Henn, Mala Mawkin, John O’ Donoghue
JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2021; 9(10): e28384
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98 Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting Education for Midwives and Nurses as Informed by Women’s Experiences: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed-Method Research Protocol. (Preprint)
Monica Pilar Diaz,Mary Steen,Angela Brown,Julie Fleet,Jan Williams
JMIR Research Protocols. 2021;
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99 The relationship between resilience and organisational control systems in the South African aviation industry
Estie Serfontein,Krishna K. Govender
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management. 2021; 15(0)
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100 Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward COVID-19 of people staying in night shelters during lockdown in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh
Jeevanapriya Pala,GoruKrishna Babu,K Babji
MRIMS Journal of Health Sciences. 2021; 9(2): 61
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101 Preliminary Evidence Supporting a Novel 10-Item Clinical Learning Environment Quick Survey (CLEQS)
Deborah Simpson,Matthew McDiarmid,Tricia La Fratta,Nicole Salvo,Jacob L. Bidwell,Lawrence Moore,David M. Irby
Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2021; 13(4): 553
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102 Evaluation of pharmaceutical education in the State of Libya: An academic perspective
Mohamd M. Milad,Amal Y. Benkorah
Pharmacy Education. 2021; : 344
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103 Educatoræs Learning Alignment Instrument (ELAI):
Robert D. Vining,Timothy Millard
Journal of Chiropractic Education. 2021; 35(1): 28
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Impact of Rectus Diastasis Repair on Abdominal Strength and Function: A Systematic Review
Jessica Gormley,Andrea Copeland,Haley Augustine,Charlotte Axelrod,Mark McRae
Cureus. 2020;
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105 Parents’ attitude towards their children and adolescents affected by leprosy in an endemic district in West Bengal, India
Joydeepa Darlong,Pitchaimani Govindharaj
Leprosy Review. 2020; 91(3): 282
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106 Content Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of a Questionnaire to Measure Virtual Social Network Addiction Among University Students
Samaneh Torkian,Armita Shahesmaeili,Neda Malekmohammadi,Vahid Khosravi
International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction. 2020; In Press(In Press)
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107 Psychometric Properties of Persian Version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5-Research Version (SCID5-RV): A Diagnostic Accuracy Study
Parvaneh Mohammadkhani,Ameneh Setareh Forouzan,Zahra Hooshyari,Imaneh Abasi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2020; In Press(In Press)
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108 Scoring Model in Operational Research on Cultural-Tourism: A Case Study in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Thavamalar Ramamoorty,Noraini Abdullah,Suzelawati Zenian
Pakistan Journal of Geology. 2020; 4(1): 28
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109 The physical impact of long bone fractures on adults in KwaZulu-Natal
Sevani Singaram,Mergan Naidoo
South African Journal of Physiotherapy. 2020; 76(1)
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110 Reliability and validity of the Readiness for Hospital Discharge Scale in patients with spinal cord injury
Jacques S. De Lange,Jolandi Jacobs,Nadine Meiring,Boitumelo Moroane,Tinei Verster,Steve Olorunju,Mokgadi K. Mashola
South African Journal of Physiotherapy. 2020; 76(1)
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111 Ayurveda studentsæ perception toward online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic
Gaurav Sawarkar,Punam Sawarkar,Vaishali Kuchewar
Journal of Education and Health Promotion. 2020; 9(1): 342
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112 The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental healthcare professionals
Aditya Shetty,Raksha Bhat,Preethesh Shetty,MithraN Hegde,U SKrishna Nayak,Neevan D’souza
Journal of International Oral Health. 2020; 12(8): 98
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113 Sustainability Indicators in Restaurants: The Development of a Checklist
Dayanne da Costa Maynard,Renata Puppin Zandonadi,Eduardo Yoshio Nakano,Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho
Sustainability. 2020; 12(10): 4076
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114 Providing Sustainable Knowledge for the Young Graduates of Economic and Social Sciences. Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Required Global Competences in Two Romanian Universities
Lavinia Cornelia Butum,Lumini?a Nicolescu,Sergiu Octavian Stan,Andrei Gaitanaru
Sustainability. 2020; 12(13): 5364
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115 Comments on "Reliability and Validity of an Adapted Questionnaire Assessing Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals among Health Care Workers in Bhutan"
Priya Dutta,Varsha Chorsiya
The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2020; 11(4): 215
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116 Secondary Education Students’ Beliefs about Mathematics and Their Repercussions on Motivation
Vanesa Rojo Robas,José María Madariaga,José Domingo Villarroel
Mathematics. 2020; 8(3): 368
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117 Level of Nurses to Patients Communication and Perceived Barriers in Government Hospitals of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia, 2020
Wubneh Moges, Emishaw Solomon, Animaw Worku
Clinical Journal of Nursing Care and Practice. 2020; 4(1): 012
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118 Patient?s Compliance with Oral Antibiotics Treatments at Community Health Centers in Surabaya: A 20-KAO Questionnaire Development
Ilil Maidatuz Zulfa,Widya Handayani
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy. 2020; 3(4): 262
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119 Assessing School Engagement – Adaptation and Validation of “Engagement Versus Disaffection With Learning: Teacher Report” in the Swedish Educational Context
Andrea Ritoša,Henrik Danielsson,Madeleine Sjöman,Lena Almqvist,Mats Granlund
Frontiers in Education. 2020; 5
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120 Development and Validation of a Short Version Sport Orientation Questionnaire for Chinese Adolescents (SOQ-CA)
Jindong Chang,Yali Yi,Naiqing Song
Frontiers in Psychology. 2020; 11
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121 Validation of the Tunisian Social Situation Instrument in the General Pediatric Population
Olfa Rajhi,Soumeyya Halayem,Malek Ghazzai,Amal Taamallah,Mohamed Moussa,Zeineb Salma Abbes,Malek Hajri,Houda Ben Yahia,Maissa Touati,Radhouane Fakhfakh,Asma Bouden
Frontiers in Psychology. 2020; 11
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122 Physical Preparation in Female Rugby Codes: An Investigation of Current Practices
Omar Heyward,Ben Nicholson,Stacey Emmonds,Gregory Roe,Ben Jones
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living. 2020; 2
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Development and Psychometric Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate Knowledge and Attitude Towards Medication Error Reporting Among Pharmacists

Ruzmayuddin Mamat,Siti Asarida Awang,Ab Fatah Ab Rahman
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety. 2020; Volume 12: 95
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Measuring the Patient Experience of Mental Health Care: A Systematic and Critical Review of Patient-Reported Experience Measures

Sara Fernandes,Guillaume Fond,Xavier Y Zendjidjian,Karine Baumstarck,Christophe Lançon,Fabrice Berna,Franck Schurhoff,Bruno Aouizerate,Chantal Henry,Bruno Etain,Ludovic Samalin,Marion Leboyer,Pierre-Michel Llorca,Magali Coldefy,Pascal Auquier,Laurent Boyer
Patient Preference and Adherence. 2020; Volume 14: 2147
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Medication Non-Adherence and Associated Factors Among Diabetic Patients Visiting General Hospitals in the Eastern Zone of Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia

Ephrem Mebrahtu Araya,Haylay Araya Gebrezgabiher,Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu,Niguse Meles Alema,Desalegn Getnet,Hirut Teame Gebru,Betelhem Anteneh Adamu
Patient Preference and Adherence. 2020; Volume 14: 2071
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126 Content validation of the Nutritional Attention Assessment Instrument in Primary Health Care
Ana Beatriz PACITO-ALMEIDA,Angélica Barbosa Neres SANTANA,Lia Thieme Oikawa ZANGIROLANI,Maria Angélica Tavares de MEDEIROS
Revista de Nutrição. 2020; 33
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127 Validação de conteúdo de Instrumento de Avaliação da Atenção Nutricional na Atenção Primária à Saúde
Ana Beatriz PACITO-ALMEIDA,Angélica Barbosa Neres SANTANA,Lia Thieme Oikawa ZANGIROLANI,Maria Angélica Tavares de MEDEIROS
Revista de Nutrição. 2020; 33
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128 Healthy eating in pregnancy, education for midwives: A pre-post intervention study
Shwikar Othman,Mary Steen,Julie-Anne Fleet,Rasika Jayasekara
European Journal of Midwifery. 2020; 4(May)
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129 The development and validation of a measurement instrument to investigate determinants of health care utilisation for low back pain in Ethiopia
Getahun Kebede Beyera,Jane O’Brien,Steven Campbell,Angel Blanch
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0227801
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130 Managerial capacity among district health managers and its association with district performance: A comparative descriptive study of six districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana
Anne Christine Stender Heerdegen,Moses Aikins,Samuel Amon,Samuel Agyei Agyemang,Kaspar Wyss,Kamal Gholipour
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0227974
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131 Examination of marketing mix performance in relation to sustainable development of the Poland’s confectionery industry
Pawel Tadeusz Kazibudzki,Tomasz Witold Trojanowski,Isabel Novo-Cortí
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(10): e0240893
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132 A qualitative exploration of teachers’ perspective on smartphones usage in higher education in developing countries
Shakeel Iqbal,Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti
International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. 2020; 17(1)
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133 The anti-clot treatment scale (ACTS): validation of the translated Arabic version among patients undergoing warfarin therapy in Saudi Arabia
Sireen Abdul Rahim Shilbayeh,Alnada Abdalla Ibrahim
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2020; 18(1)
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134 The McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire-Revised (MQOL-R). Psychometric properties and validation of a Brazilian version on palliative care patients: a cross-sectional study
Paul Vicuña Serrano,Gerardo Beltran Serrano,Iraci L. S. Torres,Roberta Rossi Graudner,Wolnei Caumo
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2020; 18(1)
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135 Development and psychometric assessment of the triage nurses’ professional capability questionnaire in the emergency department
Mostafa Bijani,Mahnaz Rakhshan,Mohammad Fararouei,Camellia Torabizadeh
BMC Nursing. 2020; 19(1)
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136 Transitioning to digital first line intervention – validation of a brief online screener for early identification of a suspected eating disorder: study protocol
Emma Bryant,Jane Miskovic-Wheatley,Stephen Touyz,Ross D. Crosby,Eyza Koreshe,Li Cao,Sarah Maguire
Journal of Eating Disorders. 2020; 8(1)
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137 Improving the validity, relevance and feasibility of the continuum of care framework for maternal health in South Africa: a thematic analysis of experts’ perspectives
Mamothena Carol Mothupi,Lucia Knight,Hanani Tabana
Health Research Policy and Systems. 2020; 18(1)
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138 Protocol of a multicentric prospective cohort study for the VALIDation of the IBD-disk instrument for assessing disability in inflammatory bowel diseases: the VALIDate study
C. Le Berre,A. Bourreille,M. Flamant,G. Bouguen,L. Siproudhis,M. Dewitte,N. Dib,E. Cesbron-Metivier,T. Goronflot,M. Hanf,P.-A. Gourraud,E. Kerdreux,A. Poinas,C. Trang-Poisson
BMC Gastroenterology. 2020; 20(1)
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139 Psychometric properties of the Persian version of postpartum distress measure scale
Zahra Bakht Shokuhi,Fatemeh Ranjbar,Sevil Hakimi,Rogayeh Bahri,Saeideh Ghaffarifar
BMC Psychiatry. 2020; 20(1)
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140 Development and validation of a diverticular clinical score for symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease after acute diverticulitis in a prospective patient cohort
Adi Lahat, Herma H Fidder, Shomron Ben-Horin
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology. 2020; 13: 1756284820
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141 Multisite Culinary Medicine Curriculum Is Associated With Cardioprotective Dietary Patterns and Lifestyle Medicine Competencies Among Medical Trainees
Alexander C. Razavi,Dominique J. Monlezun,Alexander Sapin,Zachary Stauber,Kara Schradle,Emily Schlag,Amber Dyer,Brennan Gagen,Isabella G. McCormack,Ofure Akhiwu,Leah Sarris,Kerri Dotson,Timothy S. Harlan
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2020; 14(2): 225
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142 Validation of a Revised Knowledge Assessment Tool for Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD-KID2)
Angharad Vernon-Roberts, Anthony Otley, Chris Frampton, Richard B. Gearry, Andrew S. Day
Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases. 2020; 5(2): 70
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143 The transcultural adaptation and the validity and reliability of the Turkish Version of Perrocaæs Patient Classification Instrument
Guzin Ayan,Emine Türkmen
Journal of Nursing Management. 2020;
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144 The Reported Edmonton Frail Scale-Thai version: Development and Validation of a Culturally-Sensitive Instrument
Inthira Roopsawang,Hilaire Thompson,Oleg Zaslavsky,Basia Belza
Nursing & Health Sciences. 2020; 22(3): 685
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145 What do women know before getting pregnant? Knowledge of preconception care and associated factors among pregnant women in Mana district, Southwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study
Firanbon Teshome,Yohannes Kebede,Fira Abamecha,Zewdie Birhanu
BMJ Open. 2020; 10(7): e035937
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146 The Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale among Dental Outpatients
Mika Ogawa,Teppei Sago,Hirokazu Furukawa
The Scientific World Journal. 2020; 2020: 1
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147 Challenges and enablers of the embedded researcher model
Dominiek Coates,Sharon Mickan
Journal of Health Organization and Management. 2020; 34(7): 743
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148 Establishing basic requirements for textile and garment mass production units in the Tanzanian context
Ismail W.R. Taifa,Gervaz G. Lushaju
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel. 2020; 24(4): 321
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149 An evaluation of online students’ persistence intentions
Asifa Ilyas,Muhammad Kashif Zaman
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal. 2020; 15(2): 207
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150 Developing Verb Picture Naming Test for Persian adults and determining its psychometric properties
Maryam Namdar Khatibani,Azar Mehri,Shohreh Jalaie,Mahdi Dastjerdi Kazemi
Applied Neuropsychology: Adult. 2020; : 1
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151 A tool to assess the quality perception of healthcare employees
Ajayan Kamalasanan,Gurumoorthy Sathiyamurthi,Arun Vijay Subbarayalu
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 2020; 33(4/5): 291
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152 Validity and Reliability Study of the Turkish Version of Multiple Sclerosis Self-Management Scale
Öznur Erbay,Öznur Usta Yesilbalkan,Nur Yüceyar,Meltem Baklan,Ayfer Karadakovan,Mustafa Agah Tekindal
Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 2020; 52(3): 122
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153 Evaluation of Service Quality of Public Transportation (Study Case of Trans Padang)
Carmel M. Henmaidi,Carmel M. Jonrinaldi,Hilmi Yenny
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020; 1003: 012030
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154 VALIDation of the IBD-Disk Instrument for Assessing Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in a French Cohort: The VALIDate Study
Catherine Le Berre, Mathurin Flamant, Guillaume Bouguen, Laurent Siproudhis, Marie Dewitte, Nina Dib, Elodie Cesbron-Metivier, Thomas Goronflot, Matthieu Hanf, Pierre-Antoine Gourraud, Elise Kerdreux, Alexandra Poinas, Arnaud Bourreille, Caroline Trang-Poisson
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis. 2020; 14(11): 1512
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155 Development of assesment instruments to measure quality of MOOC-Platform in engineering mathematics 1 course
I Yuniwati,A D Yustita,S A Hardiyanti,I W Suardinata
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020; 1567: 022102
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156 Design Of Instrument Explosive Power Leg Muscles Sensor Based
Nurul Ihsan,Nurul Bafirman,Asep Sujana,Anton Yus Permana
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020; 1594: 012038
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157 Opioid prescription practice behavior among medical and surgical specialty physicians
Uzung Yoon,Tho Nguyen,Marc C. Torjman,Daniella Miele,Ellen Hauck,Michael Williams
Journal of Substance Use. 2020; : 1
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158 The Adoption of Online Product Information: Cognitive and Affective Evaluations
Tsan-Ching Kang,Shin-Yuan Hung,Albert H. Huang
Journal of Internet Commerce. 2020; : 1
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159 Application of FAHP–PROMETHEE Hybrid Model for Prioritizing SMEs Failure Factors
Nenad Nikolic,Djordje Nikolic,Sanja Marinkovic,Ivan Mihajlovic
Engineering Management Journal. 2020; : 1
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160 Developing interprofessional collaboration between clinicians, interpreters, and translators in healthcare settings: outcomes from face-to-face training
Claire Xiaochi Zhang,Emma Crawford,Jeanne Marshall,Anne Bernard,Katie Walker-Smith
Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2020; : 1
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161 Enhancing community pharmacists’ provision of medication adherence support to older adults: A mixed methods study using the Theoretical Domains Framework
Deborah E. Patton,Cristín Ryan,Carmel M. Hughes
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2020;
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162 Guiding towards register awareness in an undergraduate EFL curriculum in Italy
Register Studies. 2020;
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163 A two models modification for determining cloud computing adoption for web-based services in academic libraries in Nigeria
Adeyinka Tella,Scholastica Chizoma Ukwoma,Isaiah Kayode Adeniyi
The Journal of Academic Librarianship. 2020; 46(6): 102255
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164 Measuring patient experience in the emergency department: A scoping review
Yemisi Okikiade Oyegbile,Petra Brysiewicz
African Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2020;
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165 Community pharmacists’ knowledge of and attitudes toward antibiotic use, resistance, and self-medication in Jordan
Derar H. Abdel-Qader,Abdullah Albassam,Najlaa Saadi Ismael,Asma’ A. El-Shara’,Ahmad Z. Al Meslamani,Penny J. Lewis,Salim Hamadi,Osama Mohamed Ibrahim,Nadia Al Mazrouei
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives. 2020;
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166 Self-System Mediates the Effect of Physical Activity on Students’ Anxiety: A study from Canada
Sumaira Kayani,Jin Wang,Saima Kayani,Tayyaba Kiyani,Zhi Qiao,Xuefang Zou,Muhammad Imran
The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. 2020;
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167 A Hybrid Method for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures
Atul Kumar Goyal,Jaimanti Bakshi,Naresh K Panda,Rakesh Kapoor,Dharam Vir,Krishan Kumar,Pankaj Aneja,Balwinder Singh,Meenu Gupta,Sumittar Singh Walia
International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology. 2020;
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168 Investigating the use of no-dig technologies for underground utilities in developing countries
Essam Zaneldin,Omar Al Khatib,Waleed Ahmed
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions. 2020; 5(1)
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169 Asynchronously Embedding Psychological Test Questions into Human–Robot Conversations for User Profiling
Tsung-Ren Huang,Yu-Wei Liu,Shin-Min Hsu,Joshua O. S. Goh,Yu-Ling Chang,Su-Ling Yeh,Li-Chen Fu
International Journal of Social Robotics. 2020;
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170 Measurement properties of preference-based measures for economic evaluation in COPD: a systematic review
Ava Mehdipour,Marla K. Beauchamp,Joshua Wald,Nicole Peters,Ayse Kuspinar
Quality of Life Research. 2020;
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171 Development of the Childhood Nonverbal Communication Scale
Mohammad Majid Oryadi-Zanjani
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2020;
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172 Knowledge and Beliefs of Jordanian Community Toward E-cigarettes: A National Survey
Derar H. Abdel-Qader,Ahmad Z. Al Meslamani
Journal of Community Health. 2020;
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173 Intraarticular injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances regeneration in knee osteoarthritis
Emily Claire Doyle,Nicholas Martin Wragg,Samantha Louise Wilson
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2020;
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174 Deep gluteal syndrome is defined as a non-discogenic sciatic nerve disorder with entrapment in the deep gluteal space: a systematic review
Kazuha Kizaki,Soshi Uchida,Ajaykumar Shanmugaraj,Camila Catherine Aquino,Andrew Duong,Nicole Simunovic,Hal David Martin,Olufemi R. Ayeni
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2020;
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175 Development and initial psychometric testing of a body-image domain within an electronic pelvic floor questionnaire (ePAQ-pelvic floor)
Kaia Scurr,Thomas G. Gray,Georgina L. Jones,Stephen C. Radley
International Urogynecology Journal. 2020;
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176 Flipped jigsaw activity as a small group peer-assisted teaching learning tool in Biochemistry Department among Indian Medical Graduate: An experimental study
Vibha Uppal,Neha Uppal
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 2020;
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177 Examining human attitudes toward shared mobility options and autonomous vehicles
Alireza Rahimi,Ghazaleh Azimi,Xia Jin
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 2020; 72: 133
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178 Ability of the Bristol Impact of Hypermobility questionnaire to discriminate between people with and without Joint Hypermobility Syndrome: a known-group validity study
Shea Palmer,Samuel Macconnell,Alison Willmore
Musculoskeletal Care. 2020;
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179 Development and Validation of Scale using Rasch Analysis to Measure Students’ Entrepreneurship Readiness to Learn Embedded System Design Course
Intisar Ibrahim Ridwan,Kamilah Radin Salim,Zulkifli Adam,Izzeldin I. Mohd,Nazar El Fadil
Procedia Computer Science. 2020; 172: 545
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180 Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hong Kong-Chinese version of Childrenæs Voice Handicap Index-10 for Parents (CVHI-10-P(HK))
Elaine Kwong
Journal of Voice. 2020;
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181 Development and psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Nurse Interpersonal Empathy Questionnaire
Mina Montazeri,Zahra Tagharrobi,Zahra Sooki,Khadijeh Sharifi
International Journal of Nursing Sciences. 2020;
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182 Towards a Unified Criteria Model for Usability Evaluation in the Context of Open Source Software Based on a Fuzzy Delphi Method
Kareem A. Dawood,Khaironi Y. Sharif,ABDUL A. GHANI,H. Zulzalil,A.A. Zaidan,B.B. Zaidan
Information and Software Technology. 2020; : 106453
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183 Developing a readiness self-assessment tool for low- and middle-income countries establishing new radiotherapy services: A participant validation study
Andrew Donkor,Tim Luckett,Sanchia Aranda,Verna Vanderpuye,Jane Phillips
Physica Medica. 2020; 71: 88
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184 Developing a questionnaire to measure psychological disturbance associated with tooth loss
Zaki Kudsi,Michael R Fenlon,Kirsty Hill,Aylin Baysan
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