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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 174-178

Foetal congenital anomalies: An experience from a tertiary health institution in north-west nigeria (2011-2013)

1 From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 From the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria
3 From the Department of Paediatrics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Swati Singh
From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1117-1936.170743

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Background: Structural or functional defects present at birth may lead to physical or mental disabilities. They contribute significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of congenital anomalies among women delivering in the labour room suites of a tertiary health institution in North-Western Nigeria. Various maternal risk factors were also correlated and analysed. Subjects and Methods: This was a 3-year hospital-based prospective study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in association with the Department of Paediatrics in a tertiary health care centre in North-Western Nigeria. All neonates delivered in the labour rooms were examined for congenital abnormalities (CAs) soon after birth. The study group included all live births along with stillbirths delivered after the 28th week of gestation. Those diagnosed with congenital anomaly were admitted to the special care baby unit for observation and documentation. Results: A total of 72 congenital anomalies were documented among 10,163 deliveries. Central nervous system (CNS) anomalies had the highest prevalence 34.7% (25/72) and were followed by those of the musculoskeletal system 22.2% (16/72). Spina bifida/meningocoele were the most common anomalies of the CNS 44% (11/25) followed by hydrocephaly 28% (7/25). Most of the anomalies involved single organs 59/72 (81.9%). Majority of the CA 84.7% (61/72) were prevalent within the maternal age range of 16–35 years, while 12.5% were seen in teenage pregnancy. Diagnosis of most of the anomalies was made after delivery 69.4% (50/72). History of maternal febrile illness during pregnancy was present in 75% (54/72) and in 50% (27/54) of cases with CNS anomaly. Conclusion: Central nervous system anomalies were the most prevalent congenital anomalies observed. Improved maternal health, pre-conception care, folic acid supplementation and routine foetal anomaly scan may help to reduce these anomalies.

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