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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-92

Role of risk-based approach in the prevention of vertical transmission of neonatal sepsis

1 Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University Of Ilorin/University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, University of Ilorin/University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
A S Adeniran
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1459, Ilorin, Kwara State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Aims and Objectives: Vertical transmission of infections remains a common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We studied the risk-based approach in preventing the vertical transmission of neonatal sepsis. Patients and methods: A prospective case control study of 154 pregnant women with risk factors for vertical transmission of infections (subjects) and 154 pregnant women without the risk factors (control) at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin from 1st July to 31st December, 2010. After counseling and consent taking, all participants had active management of labour and all subjects had parenteral intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with Ampicillin. There was postnatal evaluation of all babies for signs of neonatal sepsis followed by blood culture and treatment of culture positive babies. The outcome measures were signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis, neonatal positive blood culture and maternal postpartum morbidity. Results: Neonatal sepsis occurred in 16 babies (subjects=11, control=5); three babies had Early Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease (EOGBSD) (subjects=2, control=1; P=0.501) while 13 had non Group B Streptococcal (GBS) infections (subjects=9, control=4; P=0.113); onset of signs and symptoms was <24hrs in all cases, incidence of EOGBSD were 12.9/1000 (subjects) and 6.5/1000 (controls). Subjects whose babies had sepsis had multiple risk factors; one dose of antibiotics and antibiotics to delivery interval <2hours. There was no sepsis in babies of mothers who had adequate antibiotic prophylaxis. There was no maternal or neonatal death but 17.5% of subjects had maternal postpartum morbidities. Conclusion: The risk-based approach is a practicable alternative in preventing vertical transmission of neonatal sepsis if antibiotic prophylaxis is adequate before delivery.

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