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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-51

Clinico-Pathologic Characterisation of metastatic prostate cancer in the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria – Nigeria: 2006 – 2009

1 Radiotherapy and Oncology Centre, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Urology Unit, Surgery Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Pathology department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Radiation therapy and Radiation Biology Department, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
S A Adewuyi
Radiotherapy and Oncology Centre, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the Clinico-pathologic Characteristics of Metastatic prostate cancer patients seen in the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Materials and Methods : Between January 2006 and December 2009, a period of 4 years, 72 new patients with prostate cancers were seen of which 43 patients had distant metastases. Only patients with histologic confirmation of prostate cancer and having metastases were included in the study irrespective of age, co-morbidity and performance status. Patients' folders were reviewed retrospectively with a structured pro forma. Information retrieved from patient's folder included age, histology, Gleason score, co-morbidities, interval between diagnosis and referral to oncology unit, interval between referral and presentation at oncology unit, PSA at diagnosis and presentation at oncology unit, sites of metastases, bones sites involved in bone metastases, types of treatment received and follow up status. Results were analysed using Epi Info soft ware Version 3.4.1; 2007 Edition. Results : 43 patients had distant metastases from prostate cancer during initial evaluation at presentation in the radiotherapy and oncology centre. The mean age was 66.2 years (range, 47 – 82 years, median age 66 years and modal age group was 65 – 69 years). Co-morbidity was seen in 18 patients, with hypertension being the commonest (HT = 14, DM = 2 and HIV 2 patients). No morbidity seen in 25 patients. The range of duration from diagnosis to referral was 1 – 84 months. Only 20 patients presented at radiotherapy and oncology centre within 6 months of diagnosis and 18 patients presented after 12 months of diagnosis. 33 patients presented within 1 month of being referred for further management. 6 patients reported within 2 months and 2 patients within 3 months and another 2 patients within 4 months. Only 27 patients had PSA done at diagnosis. No PSA was done in 16 patients. The PSA range at diagnosis was 10.0 – 232 ng/ml, mean PSA was 67.46 ng/ml while only 40 patients did PSA on presentation for further management with a range of 1 – 245 ng/ml and a mean of 57.95 ng/ml. The histology report revealed adenocarcinoma and transitional carcinoma in 42 and 1 patients respectively. The Gleason score range was 6 – 10, with a mean score of 7.8. The Gleason score was not reported in 3 patients. Multiple organs involvement by metastases was seen in 16 patients. Bone metastases was the commonest (35), followed by lungs (8), liver (7), Virchow's lymph nodes (6), brain (5), and soft tissue (5). The lumbar vertebrae was the commonest site of bone metastases (32) followed by the sacrum (17), pelvis (11), and long bones (7). 3 patients had metastases to the ribs and 2 patients each to the skull, sternum and cervical spines. All the patients received hormonal therapy, 30 patients received palliative radiotherapy, 29 patients had surgical castration, 25 patients had radical radiotherapy to pelvis, 18 patients had systemic chemotherapy and definitive surgery was done in 16 patients. Only 6 patients received Ibandronate due to cost. 13 patients are alive and attending follow up, 11 confirmed dead and 19 lost to follow up. Conclusion : The patients were referred for management late after surgery. Bones, predominantly the lumbosacral spines was the commonest organ involved in metastases. Skeletal survey with bone scan and plain x-rays especially lumbosacral spines should be part of the staging investigation for all patients with advanced stage. There is need for more awareness on other treatment modalities emphasising the multidiscipline and multimodality management of prostate cancer.

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