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ARTICLE
Year : 2003  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 115-120

Diabetic retinopathy: management update


Diabetic Eye Clinic, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
S N Nwosu
Diabetic Eye Clinic, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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The objective of the study is to review the current knowledge and management of diabetic retinopathy. Current information from multi-centre controlled clinical trials and epidemiological studies in different parts of the world were used to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, classification, clinical features and management of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes mellitus affects all ocular tissues. Retinopathy, its most devastating ocular complication, presents with similar clinical picture in both types 1 and 2 diabetes. In Nigeria, diabetic retinopathy has an incidence of 33%; accounts for 16.7% of retinal diseases and leads to bilateral blindness in 22.2% of diabetics. Its incidence depends on both the duration of diabetes and the level of glycaemic control. Hypertension, dyslipaemia, hyperglycaemia and cigarette smoking aggravate retinopathy and adversely affect its response to treatment. Strict blood sugar control delays the onset of retinopathy and retards the progression of established disease. Timely laser and vitrectomy surgeries obviate severe visual loss in diabetic retinopathy. The role of medical therapy for diabetic retinopathy is still experimental. Diabetes occurs worldwide; diabetic retinopathy is increasing in incidence. Developed countries have clear guidelines on the care of diabetes and its complications. The need for similar guidelines in Nigeria is urgent.


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